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Terrorism: United Airlines Flight 93

A WRITE UP ON PREVENTION OF MORAL DWARFISM (TERRORISM) AND REVIEW OF ‘UNITED 93’ BY TEAM ‘TYCOONS’ MORAL DWARFISM The term dwarfism was restricted to the field of medicine. But in today’s scenario we find that our society as such is a dwarf, morally. Anti-social elements and activities have become the top most concern, because of their undue influence on the society. The gloomiest of all anti-social activity is the act of ‘TERRORISM’, the word which the world hates the most today. TERRORISM

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The term “terrorism” since the 1970s was directed to various phenomenon, starting from fearsome threats until today the world under UN has failed to come to an agreement about what is an acceptable definition for terrorism. It is still under debate despite attempts made by many experts. The effort to approach terrorism from a definitional perspective has thus become a never-ending effort. 1. The use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political purposes. 2. The state of fear and submission produced by errorism or terrorization. 3. A terroristic method of governing or of resisting a government. TYPES OF TERRORISM There are six different types of terrorism. They are anarchist terrorism, state sponsored terrorism, right wing terrorism, left wing terrorism, religious terrorism, and nationalist terrorism. ANARCHIST TERRORISM Anarchist terrorism was a major global phenomenon from the 1870s to 1920. A young Hungarian refugee killed President William McKinley who was persuaded to by anarchist sentiment in 1901. STATE-SPONSORED TERRORISM

Iran accused Cuba, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria of supporting terrorism. The Abu Nidal Organization is an example of state-sponsored terrorism. RIGHT WING TERRORISM Right wing terrorism is one of the least organized terrorists. They attack immigrants and refugees. LEFT WING TERRORISM Left wing terrorism limits the use of violence, but destroys the democracy and takes over with socialist or communist regime. They also stay away from harming victims. Baader-Meinhof Group, the Japanese Red Army, Weathermen, and the Red Brigades are all examples of left wing terrorism.

RELIGIOUS TERRORISM: Religious terrorism attack large numbers of their enemy. They use violence as their strategy. Here are some examples of religious terrorism: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, Hezbollah, and Aum Shinrikyo. NATIONALIST TERRORISM Nationalist terrorists use violence. These terrorists are usually successful at getting people’s sympathy because they try to fight for “national liberation”. Irish Republican Army, Basque Fatherland and Liberty, and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party are examples of nationalist terrorism.

NARCOTERRORISM Narcoterrorism is another type of terrorism that has to do with drugs. Some terrorist groups such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, United Self-Defense Forces of Columbia, National Liberation Army, Shining Path, Kurdistan Workers’ Party, Hezbollah, Al-Queda (Taliban), Real IRA, and Basque Fatherland and Liberty, use narcoterrorism. Because nearly every terrorist group today uses narcoterrorism, experts think that the word is nonspecific. CYBERTERRORISM

Cyberterrorism is a type of terrorism that uses computers and network. Usually, small terrorist groups use cyberterrorism. Experts have only identified Aum Shinrikyo and the Tamil Tigers of using cyberterrorism so far. These two terrorist groups usually use cyberterrorism to fail the computer security, or to show off their technical abilities. Cyberterrorism can allow disruptions in military communications and even electrical power. Some ways by which cyberterrorism is demonstrated can be by controlling from a distant electrical thing such as dams or power plants.

Another way cyberterrorism can be used is by destroying the actual machine that contains the electronic information. What can you do to lessen the vulnerability to cyberterrorism? Well, experts recommend individual computer users to use virus protection software and also to stay away from strange emails and computer programs. IMPACT OF TERRORISM ON SOCIETY AND ECONOMY Terrorism poses a serious law and order problem and leads to disintegration of society. The incident of murder, torture, mutilation, kidnapping, arson and extortion create atmosphere of suspicion, fear and panic all around.

Life becomes uncertain. The terrorists kill unarmed civilians including women and children. Organized crime and violence cause social disharmony. The inter relationship among various insurgent groups and their foreign linkages bring illegal money and encourages smuggling. Many insurgent groups collect certain percentage of money from the employees and businessmen on regular basis. Economic development of the area comes to an end. Our government has to make heavy expenditure to meet the challenges of terrorism. PREVENTION OF TERRORISM Uniting the interests of various nations when it comes to terrorism. • Stringent rules against terrorists and those who support terrorist’s activities. • Increase the autonomy given to armed forces. • Check the flow of money into the hands of pro-terrorist individuals, organizations. • Cut down aid given to terrorist nations like Pakistan. The only practically workable way to eradicate terrorism is to remove its cause – the (justified or unjustified) feeling of injustice. If the feeling of injustice is unjustified it can be removed by exposing the myth.

If the feeling of injustice is justified then the only way to remove it is to redress that injustice by restitution or, if restitution is impossible, compensation. If the injustice consists in occupation of territory, then the feeling of injustice is removed by cessation of the occupation. FAILURE TO STOP TERRORISM Whenever an established government is confronted with terrorism they try to stop it (1) by imprisoning or killing terrorist leaders, (2) by bribing or appeasing terrorist leaders, or in extreme cases (3) by killing every male belonging to the group on behalf of which the terrorists operate (genocide).

It has been proved by the history of mankind, and it logically follows from the nature of terrorism, that it is impossible to stop terrorism by killing or imprisoning terrorist leaders. As long as the cause of terrorism (the feeling of injustice) remains, new terrorist leaders appear and replace those killed or imprisoned. The very fact of killing or imprisoning terrorist leaders increases the feeling of injustice and hatred that feeds terrorism and arouses desire for revenge. The killed terrorist leaders become symbols, martyrs, saints and role models for their followers.

Occasional terrorist incidents become regular and increasingly frequent part of daily life, until they reach the proportions of a full scale civil war. It has been proved by the history of mankind, and it logically follows from the nature of terrorism, that it is impossible to stop terrorism by bribing or appeasing terrorist leaders. As long as the cause of terrorism (the feeling of injustice) remains, the bribed or appeased leaders will lose the support of their followers and will be replaced by new leaders.

The very fact of bribery or appeasement increases the feeling of disdain towards the established government and the resolve to continue the struggle. Theoretically genocide appears to be an effective way to eradicate terrorism: kill every terrorist and all the people on whose behalf terrorists fight their war and terrorism will disappear. In practice such solution could be extremely difficult or even impossible to implement. REVIEW OF THE MOVIEW ‘UNITED 93’

United 93 (also known as Flight 93) is a 2006 film written, co-produced, and directed by Paul Greengrass that chronicles events aboard United Airlines Flight 93, which was hijacked during the September 11 attacks. The film attempts to recount with as much veracity as possible (there is a disclaimer that some imagination had to be used) and in real time (from the flight’s takeoff) what has come to be known in the United States as an iconic moment of heroism. According to the filmmakers, the film was made with the cooperation of many of the passengers’ families (though there are some notable exceptions. United 93 premiered on April 26, 2006 at the Tribeca Film Festival in New York City, a festival founded to celebrate New York City as a major filmmaking center and to contribute towards the long-term recovery of Lower Manhattan. Several family members of the passengers aboard the flight attended the premiere to show their support. The film opened nationwide in North America on April 28, 2006. Ten percent of the gross from the three-day opening weekend was promised toward a donation to create a memorial for the victims of Flight 93. United 93 grossed $31. million in the United States, and $76. 2 million worldwide. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The real United Airlines Flight 93 was a Boeing 757-222 flight that regularly flew from Newark International Airport (now known as Newark Liberty International Airport) in Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco International Airport in San Francisco, California. On September 11, 2001, the aircraft on the flight was one of the four planes hijacked as part of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, possibly intended to crash into and destroy the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.

C. It was the only one of the four planes that did not reach its intended target, instead crashing near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, about 150 miles northwest of Washington. PLOT The film opens early on the morning of September 11, 2001 with hijackers Ahmed al-Nami and Ahmed al-Haznawi praying in their hotel room, United 93’s skyjacking ringleader Ziad Jarrah reading the Quran, and Saeed al-Ghamdi shaving. The four then leave for Newyork International Airport.

At the airport, the crew boards United Airlines Flight 93 and the secret knock between the crew is established and flight attendant Deborah Welsh test the plane’s PA asking if the others in the back can hear her, and flight attendant Sandy Bradshaw asks if they have sugar in the front galley. First Officer LeRoy Homer, Jr. does the checklists and final exterior check before takeoff. The passengers then board, with Mark Bingham boarding late. The cabin door is then closed. Shortly after boarding, and the safety briefing, Flight 93 is delayed for 41 minutes because of the high volume of traffic.

The three other hijacked flights, American Airlines Flight 11, United Airlines Flight 175, and American Airlines Flight 77 take off. As Flight 93 passes by Manhattan the pilot, Jason Dahl, makes a left bank and tells the forty-four passengers and crew that those on the left side of the Boeing 757 have a clear view of Manhattan, especially of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center. Hijacker Ziad Jarrah, who is sitting in seat 1B, catches a final glimpse of the World Trade Center as the plane climbs away.

Air traffic controllers monitoring all current flights determine that American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 from Boston to Los Angeles, has taken a southern turn toward New York City. Shortly after, Flight 11 descends into Lower Manhattan and crashes into the North Tower of the World Trade Center, although the air traffic controllers do not immediately realize what has happened. About 20 minutes earlier, a tape recording was made of Mohamed Atta’s line “We have some planes, just stay quiet and you’ll be okay. We are going back to the airport. The controllers express uncertainty as to which airport is being referred to. The content of the recording is reported to FAA National Operations Manager, Ben Sliney. CNN then internationally telecasts the first shot of the smoking World Trade Center. While the air traffic controllers, still unaware that Flight 11 has crashed, try to make sense of it, United Airlines Flight 175, another 767 from Boston, is also hijacked, and begins to descend and turn toward New York City as well. Air traffic controllers then realize they are dealing with multiple hijackings.

American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 from Dulles International Airport to Los Angeles is also hijacked. The traffic controllers alert the U. S. Air Force, who debate whether or not to shoot down suspected hijacked flights. The air traffic controllers and Air Force watch as Flight 175 crashes into the South Tower of the WTC on live television, reported by CNN. Confusion mounts when military personnel mistakenly are informed that American Airlines Flight 11 had not hit the North Tower, but was diverted to Dulles International Airport.

The terrorists on Flight 93 argue about when to begin their operation. At 9:28 AM, after Ahmed al-Haznawi assembles a fake bomb out of clay and plastic, the other three hijackers wrestle their way into the cockpit and overpower the pilots. In the cockpit they put a photo of the U. S. Capitol, their target, on the flight yoke mounted clipboard. By this time, Flight 77 has crashed and created a huge fireball at the Pentagon. Confusion mounts when the air traffic control center in Cleveland suggest that Delta Air Lines Flight 1989 has also been hijacked, and then determine that that is not the case.

Meanwhile, Flight 93 turns towards D. C.. To the growing consternation of Ben Sliney and his staff, coordination with the Air Force is haphazard and there are not enough fighter planes ready, or armed, to respond to an in-air hijacking. Sliney ultimately decides to shut down all airspace in the United States and ground every flight. The hijackers on Flight 93 do not prevent the people from making phone calls through the on-board GTE Airfone system.

After hearing that planes have crashed into the WTC and the Pentagon the passengers and crew understand that if they do nothing they will also die, and eventually elect to storm the cockpit and attempt to retake the plane. The passengers make one last set of phone calls to friends and family, in which they declare their intentions. The stewardesses assemble what makeshift weapons they can: cutlery, wine bottles, a fire extinguisher, etc. Learning that one of the passengers is a private pilot (although he has not flown a commercial aircraft), the group pin their hopes on his being able to control the plane.

They debate whether the bomb is real or fake before starting their counter-attack and overpowering Haznawi, who is killed by the passengers with a fire extinguisher. A passenger snatches the bomb from Haznawi’s waist and announces the bomb was a fake. Ahmed al-Nami warns Jarrah and Saeed al-Ghamdi in the cockpit of the passenger’s revolt, and attempts to hold off the advancing passengers, including using what appears to be mace and also using a fire extinguisher from the front galley.

He too is soon overwhelmed and has his neck snapped by one of the passengers. Ziad Jarrah shakes the plane violently enough to throw the passengers off balance, but nonetheless they manage to enter the cockpit. As the passengers wrestle with Saeed and Jarrah for control, the plane goes into an angled nosedive towards the ground. The ground is seen fast approaching through the cockpit window; the screen goes black as the plane is about to hit the ground, and the film end. CAST Christian Clemenson as Tom Burnett | |Trish Gates as Sandra Bradshaw | |David Alan Basche as Todd Beamer | |Cheyenne Jackson as Mark Bingham | |Opal Alladin as CeeCee Lyles | |Starla Benford as Wanda Anita Green | |J.

J. Johnson as Captain Jason Dahl | |Nancy McDoniel as Lorraine G.

Bay | |Polly Adams as Deborah Welsh | |Richard Bekins as William Joseph Cashman | |Susan Blommaert as Jane Folger | |Ray Charleson as Joseph DeLuca | |Gary Commock as First Officer LeRoy Homer Jr. |Liza Colon-Zayas as Waleska Martinez | |Lorna Dallas as Linda Gronlund | |Denny Dillon as Colleen Fraser | |Trieste Kelly

Dunn as Deora Frances Bodley | |Kate Jennings Grant as Lauren Grandcolas | |Peter Hermann as Jeremy Glick | |Tara Hugo as Kristin White Gould | |Marceline Hugot as Georgine Rose Corrigan | |Joe Jamrog as John Talignani | |Corey Johnson as Louis J.

Nacke, II | |Masato Kamo as Toshiya Kuge | |Becky London as Jean Headley Peterson | |Peter Marinker as Andrew Garcia | |Jodie Lynne McClintock as Marion R.

Britton | |Libby Morris as Hilda Marcin | |Tom O’Rourke as Donald Peterson | |Simon Poland as Alan Anthony Beaven | |David Rasche as Donald Freeman Greene | |Erich Redman as Christian Adams | |Michael J.

Reynolds as Patrick Joseph Driscoll | |John Rothman as Edward P. Felt | |Daniel Sauli as Richard Guadagno | |Rebecca Schull as Patricia Cushing | |Chloe Sirene as Honor Elizabeth Wainio | |Olivia Thirlby as Nicole Carol Miller | |Chip Zien as Mark Rothenberg | |Leigh Zimmerman as Christine Snyder |Khalid Abdalla as Ziad Jarrah | |Sarmed al-Samarrai as Saeed al-Ghamdi | |Omar Berdouni as Ahmed al-Haznawi | |Jamie Harding as Ahmed al-Nami | |Thomas Roberts as Himself | |Michael Bencal as Boston 3 | |Tom Fitzgerald as Boston 5 | |Bard Marques as Boston 6 | |John Moraitis as Supervisor | |Scott Tourin as Boston Controller 5 | |Amanda Boxer as Cleveland Supervisor | |Morgan Deare as Cleveland Supervisor | |Daniel Fraser as Cleveland Controller | |Ben Sliney as Himself | |Tobin Miller as Himself | |Rich Sullivan as Himself | |Tony Smith as Himself | |Michael Bofshever as John White | |Carol Bento as Herndon 1 | |Robert Serviss as Herndon Command Center ATC | |Matt Siebert as Herndon 2 | |Peter Wong as Herndon 5James Fox as Himself (as Major James Fox) | |Shawna Fox as Herself (as Staff Sgt. Shawna Fox) | |Jeremy Powell as Himself (as 1st Lt. Jeremy Powell) | |Patrick St. Esprit as Major Kevin Nasypany | |Gregg Henry as Col.

Robert Marr | |Karen Kirkpatrick as Major Dawn Doskins | |Curt Applegate as Himself | |Kevin T. Delaney as New York Controller | |John Kaplun as New York Controller | |Greg Callahan as Himself | |John E.

Smith as New York Controller | |Peter Pellicane as Paul Thumser | |Rick Tepper as Himself | |Bill Walsh as Newark Supervisor | |Phillip Miller as New York Center Supervisor | |Susie Gossling Valerio as Herndon Controller | |Dennis Karagovalis as Flight Crew | |Jeff Lipman as Neads — Missile Controller | |Matthew E. Parr as Herndon ATC Operator | |Joey Sontz Newark passenger | |PRODUCTION | |The film was the first Hollywood feature to draw its narrative directly from the September 11, 2001 attacks. Passengers were portrayed in | |the film mostly by professional actors (Tom Burnett, for instance, is played by Christian Clemenson, who has since appeared on Boston Legal| |and CSI: Miami).

The roles of one of the flight attendants, the two pilots, and many other airline personnel were filled by actual airline | |employees. Some participants in the real-life events play themselves, notably FAA operations manager Ben Sliney. | |The dialogue, which was mostly improvised during rehearsals Greengrass held with the cast, was based on face-to-face interviews between | |actors and families of those they portray. Almost none of the passengers in the film are referred to by their names. Their identities | |remain anonymous, emphasizing the group effort over any individual heroics (and also portraying the fact those strangers on an airplane | |would not know one another’s names).

Much of the dialogue uses technical authenticity rather than theatrical embellishments, such as talk | |about if a plane has “Squawked 7500. ” | |Filming took place on a 20-year-old reclaimed Boeing 757, formerly operated by MyTravel Airways, at Pinewood Studios near London from | |October until December 2005. The cockpit was built by Flight deck solutions. The location was chosen both for its financial incentives and | |to shield actors from unwanted public scrutiny they might have received in the U. S. Action was filmed with handheld cameras, chosen for | |their versatility on the close-quarter sets and to create a sense of immediacy. |The title was changed from Flight 93 to United 93 in March 2006, to differentiate it from the A&E TV film. Shortly thereafter, the film was| |given R rating by the Motion Picture Association of America for “language, and some intense sequences of terror and violence. ” Universal | |Pictures appealed this rating, but it was rejected. The film was released in U. S. cinemas on April 28, 2006. It opened second in the | |weekend box office behind RV, but netted a slightly higher per-screen average. | |Initial screenings ended with the closing credits line “America’s War on Terror had begun. ” This was replaced in the release version with | |'”Dedicated to the memory of all those who lost their lives on September 11, 2001. | |CRITICISM | |The film has been criticized for its portrayal of German passenger Christian Adams. Of all passengers on the plane, only Adams is portrayed| |as counseling appeasement. Sunday Times critic Cosmo Landesman mused, “Surely one of the passengers didn’t phone home to point out that | |there was a cowardly German on board who wanted to give in? ” Critic John Harris suggested in a Guardian blog, “there will surely be all | |kinds of cries about old European surrender monkeys, the United States’ contrasting backbone etc. The Guardian reports that Silke Adams,| |Adams’s widow, is “believed to have refused to cooperate on the film, saying that the memory of her husband’s death was still too raw” and | |states that “so far there is no evidence to suggest that Christian Adams did not support the other passengers, or refused to storm the | |cockpit. ” | |After the trailers for the film began circulating in cinemas, there were calls for Universal Pictures to pull them, due to the upset and | |surprise caused to some audience members. One theatre in Manhattan pulled the trailer after audience complaints. |The Iraqi-born, London-based actor Sarmed al-Samarrai, who plays a hijacker in the film, was reportedly denied a visa by United States | |immigration authorities when he applied to visit New York City to attend the premiere, despite having already been granted asylum in the | |United Kingdom since the 1990s. The reason reported to have been given was that he had once been a conscripted member of the Iraqi Army — | |although this was also the grounds for his refugee status after his desertion in 1993. Other sources say that he applied late for his visa| |and that it was not denied. | |The cockpit voice recorder tape from United Flight 93 has never been made public; however the transcript was made public after the film was| |completed, shedding more light on what actually happened in the final 30 minutes before the plane crashed.

In some parts, it may contradict| |the choices made by the filmmaker in terms of some dialogue and specific aspects of the event. For example, the pilots, Jason Dahl and | |LeRoy Homer, are shown in the film to be killed by the terrorists immediately as they are hijacking the plane. Some statements made by the | |terrorists in the transcript of the cockpit voice recorder tape, as well as moans heard in the background inside the cockpit, raised | |doubts that both pilots were indeed dead before the plane crashed; however, other documentary evidence from the 9/11 Commission Report | |indicated that at least one passenger reported in a cell phone call seeing two bodies, ossibly the pilots, lying dead on the floor outside| |the cockpit after the hijacking. | |CRITICAL RECEPTION | |United 93 was one of the most critically acclaimed movies of 2006. Roger Ebert, Michael Medved, Peter Travers, and James Berardinelli all | |awarded it with four stars. It was termed ‘one of the most moving films of the year’ by Peter Travers in Rolling Stone, and achieved an | |average 90% rating from the Web site Rotten Tomatoes, another 90% from Metacritic and a 95% from the Broadcast Film Critics Association. | |United 93 appeared on 214 critic’s Top-10 lists (the third most of any 2006 film), and was ranked #1 on 47 lists (the most of any 2006 | |film).

At the website Movie City News, which ranks 250 critics lists and awards point values for list-placement, United 93 ranks as the #1| |movie of 2006 with a score of 917. 5 points. | |AWARDS AND NOMINATIONS | |United 93 received numerous awards and nominations from film critics and guilds. Ultimately, the film received two Academy Award | |nominations, including Best Director, at the 79th Academy Awards and 6 BAFTA nominations, including Best British Film, at the 60th British | |Academy Film Awards winning two for Best Director and Best Film Editing. | | | | | | |CONCLUSION | |Terrorism has no respect for national boundaries, and the problem-taking place in any part of the world today will sure enough to become | |the problem of all tomorrow. Terrorism is a monster like Frankenstein’s creation that is too horrible and dangerous. It is even a threat to| |those countries that create or promote it. Therefore, terrorism is a phenomenon which must be condemned, fought, resisted, controlled and, | |eventually, eliminated at all levels-national, regional and international. Conditions necessary for wiping ut terrorism must, accordingly,| |be cultivated and strengthened nationally, regionally and internationally, and unilaterally, bilaterally or multilaterally. | |Terrorist acts confronted by a state cannot be eliminated by the affected States alone because of the international linkage of the | |terrorist groups. It is, therefore, clear that all the nations must form a common front to fight terrorism. If the much needed spirit of | |international cooperation in the required degree is not properly established, the world would become a dangerous place to live. It is for | |this reason that one nation’s peace and security will be determined by the success of all nations’ response to any kind of terrorism | |particularly for international terrorism. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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