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Separation of Acidic, Basic and Neutral Substances

Structure of Phenol This experiment aims to separate a mixture containing an acidic substance and a auteur substance using the principle of solubility and the method of extraction, to identify the substances in the mixture, to test the acidity and basilica of the substances and to calculate the percent recovery of the substances at the end of the procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The goals of this experiment are to separate the substances in the acidic mixture and identify each constituent in the mixture that were individually separated.

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In this experiment, the materials used were three 20-ml test tubes, which were used to contain the mixtures, 10-ml pipits, which were used o transfer substances accurately into test tubes, Pasteur pipettes, which were used to mix the aqueous layer and the organic layer, as well as to transfer one layer to another test tube, microcircuits, which were used to obtain pure substances from their respective containers, litmus paper, which was used to determine the pH level of the mixtures, a water bath, which served as the heating instrument for the mixture that will be essential for purifying the end product through rationalizations, and a beaker, which was used to hold the test tubes while heated in the water bath.

At the beginning of the experiment, the density of the mixture, which was 0. 3 g/ml, was given. Therefore, the weight of the mixture can be derived from it and using an analytical balance to weigh is not needed anymore. The analytical balance was only used when weighing the end products obtained at the end of the experiment when each substance were individually separated already. The substances to be weighed were put in an evaporating dish. Professors. 0. 5 grams of this mixture should be put in one 20-ml test tube. This test tube can be referred to as Test Tube 1 . A saturated sodium bicarbonate solution of 3 L was added to Test Tube 1 using a 10-ml pipette. Then, a Pasteur pipette was used to mix the solutions.

This was done by obtaining the lower layer then pushing it back into the test tube at the top of the above layer. This way the constituents of each layer can be mixed thoroughly while having enough contact to each layer, in which polar substances will remain in the aqueous solution while the monopole substances were dissolved in the monopole solvent. After mixing the layers in Test Tube 1 for three minutes, the layers were given enough time to separate themselves again. After hat, the lower layer was transferred to another 20-ml test tube, which we can refer to as Test Tube 2, by using a Pasteur pipette. Then, Test Tube 2 was backwash’s with 0. Ml of ether.

This is done by mixing them together and discarding the ether layer. This was done to ensure that all of the organic material that might contaminate the contents of Test Tube 2 will be removed. After that, 3. 0 ml of a MM aqueous sodium hydroxide was added to Test Tube 1, and mixed together using a Pasteur pipette by getting the lower layer then forcefully pushing it back into the tube on the upper layer. The layers were allowed enough time to separate from each other, then the resulting lower layer was drawn using a Pasteur pipette then transferred to another test tube. This test tube was referred to as Test Tube 3. Test Tube 3 was backwash’s using the same method as with Test Tube 2.

The PH level of the substances as well as the percent recovery we’re not successfully recorded since the students we’re not able to finish the experiment. In order to successfully accomplish the experiment, a carefully prepared schematic diagram must be planned and there should be proper coordination and cooperation from the students. The students must be able to efficiently divide the work in order to work in less time. Furthermore, the materials which will be used must work properly and be careful when using the equipments in way that the substances won’t be contaminated to obtain data as accurate as possible. ASSOCIATED CONTENT The process of transferring a solute from one solvent to another is called extraction. Solubility plays a major role in affecting extraction.

For instance, to extract an organic acid, one must put a base, like Noah for instance, because it deportations the acid for it to become a salt. To extract an organic base, on the other hand, one should make use of an acid, like HCI, because it leads to its propagation. Density is also a factor in extraction. This is needed in order to form layers during the extraction process and to know where the compound to isolate is. Some compounds, like the non polar ones, are soluble in the organic layer or the “oil” layer, while polar compounds are soluble in the aqueous layer or the “water” layer. Usually, a separators funnel is used in extraction, but test tubes may suffice, especially when the extraction of different compounds is needed.

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