naean) class Reptilia. They are characterized by breathing air, laying shelled eggs (except for some vipers and constrictor snakes that give live birth), and having skin covered in scales and/or scutes. Reptiles are classically viewed as having a “cold-blooded” metabolism. They are tetrapods (either having four limbs or being descended from four-limbed ancestors). Modern reptiles inhabit every continent with the exception of Antarctica, and four living orders are currently recognized: Crocodilia (crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and alligators): 23 species Sphenodontia (tuataras from New Zealand): 2 species
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Squamata (lizards, snakes, and worm lizards): approximately 7,900 species Testudines (turtles and tortoises): approximately 300 species Unlike amphibians, reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. As a rule, reptiles are oviparous (egg-laying), although certain species of squamates are capable of giving live birth. This is achieved by either ovoviviparity (egg retention) or viviparity (birth of offspring without the development of calcified eggs). Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some providing initial care for their hatchlings.
Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae, which can grow up to 1. 7 cm (0. 6 in) to the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, which may reach 6 m in length and weigh over 1,000 kg. The study of reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology. Contents [hide] 1 Classification 1. 1 History of classification 1. 1. 1 Linnaeus and the 18th century 1. 1. 2 “Antediluvian monsters” 1. 1. 3 Skull openings in 20th century classification 1. 1. 4 Phylogenetics and modern definition 1. 2 Taxonomy 1. Phylogeny 2 Evolutionary history 2. 1 Origin of the reptiles 2. 2 Rise of the reptiles 2. 3 Anapsids, synapsids, diapsids and sauropsids 2. 4 Permian reptiles 2. 5 The Mesozoic era, the “Age of Reptiles” 2. 6 Demise of the dinosaurs 3 Systems 3. 1 Circulation 3. 2 Metabolism 3. 3 Respiration 3. 3. 1 Reptilian lungs 3. 3. 2 Turtles and tortoises 3. 3. 3 Palate 3. 4 Skin 3. 5 Excretion 3. 6 Digestion 3. 7 Nerves 3. 8 Vision 3. 9 Reproduction 4 Defense mechanisms 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links