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1. Computer Aided Design (CAD) refers to the use of computers to create or analyze a design especially in engineering. Specific software are used to carry out these processes. The designs in question may be in two or three dimensions and are mainly technical drawings. Software associated with CAD are used by several organizations since they increase the accuracy of the design as well as the quality. The resulting drawings are mostly produced as electronic files that are either printed out or viewed by the use of other computer devices. This drawing technique involves more than the use of shapes, it also encompasses aspects such as tolerance of the design to several factors and the specified dimensions required for the design. In the case of careers like engineering and architecture where technical drawings are required, CAD has proven to be an invaluable asset.

In the identification of a certain engineering problem, CAD may be used. The software can analyze the problem in question and identify the areas that require alteration and those that do not. From this knowledge, the student in question may decide on the most suitable course of action to take in reference to the corrections obtained by the software (Narayan, 2008). The student in question is also able to formulate the appropriate methods required to solve the problem. From the mistakes that the CAD software has identified, the student is aware of all the errors made. In the case of a new formulation, the CAD software provides ideas that the student may find instrumental in the designing of the required diagram. Such ideas are crucial since the student utilizes some of them in his or her drawing. Without the CAD software, the students may create a technical drawing that is inappropriate and this may be disastrous for them especially in the case of an examination. Students can use the CAD software to solve several engineering problems (Madsen, 2012). This is because the software are designed to help users to solve the problems they may have concerning the technical drawing that they are constructing. For students, the software may be used to solve problems they have pertaining to the construction of drawings and in the case of correcting the already made drawings.

2. CAD/ME use in engineering has had several impacts on the world for instance the economic sector and environmental context. Globally, the use of CAD has made several people’s lives a lot easier since the software have enabled them to create the technical drawings much faster. Before the development of the software systems, the drawings had to be created manually, a process that required a lot of effort, and concentration since a small mistake would require the artist to draw the whole drawing again (Espinoza-Alvarado, 2007). Formulation of the CAD software has made this outdated as the technical drawings are now more accurate and they are completed faster than they were in the past.

CAD has also been pivotal in the Economic sector. This sector is filled with several business people who own organizations or are employed in them. CAD oriented software have been developed in order to help the firms manage their documents effectively. Product Data Management (PDM) is one such software that ensures that the documents in the said firm are in the required order. Software like this have enabled the firms to increase their productivity as well as their efficiency. This is because they are aware of the location of all their documents and is minimizes time wasted on searching for documents.

CAD has also played a role in the environmental sector. It has enabled the creation of photo stimulations that are accurate that are required in the creation of reports such as the Environmental Impact Report. In this case, the diagrams have a much greater effect than the use of words to describe the effects of a certain phenomenon (Hernandez et al, 2009). For ordinary citizens whoa re not well versed in environmental sciences, pictures are a lot easier to understand as opposed to a detailed scientific explanation. Finally, CAD has also had a social effect in the world. This is especially in the case of individuals who prefer to design, for example, their own houses, as opposed to obtaining designs from architects. This software has enabled them to create their designs in the comfort of their homes instead of spending money on the designs made by architects that they may not even like (Carlson, 2003). The invention of CAD has had a tremendous effect on the world especially in the areas that require technical drawings. CAD has enabled such people to save time and to create accurate designs. Computer Aided Design is therefore, a crucial form of design with numerous advantages.

References

Carlson, Wayne (2003). “A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation”. Ohio: Ohio State University.

Espinoza-Alvarado, J. D. (2007). Computer aided design using Gerber technology. New York: Fairchild.

International Conference on Computer Aided Optimum Design in Engineering, Hernandez, S., & Brebbia, C. A. (2009). Computer aided optimum design in engineering XI. Southampton: WIT.

Madsen, David A. (2012). Engineering Drawing & Design. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.

Narayan, K. Lalit (2008). Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Project

The polymer will lose its high bendable strength as more water is animal units bonded together. Polyvinyl acetate is a rubbery synthetic polymer. This polymer is a component in glue. Mixing borax with polyvinyl acetate will cause it to cross-link and form slime. Cross-linking is a bond that links one polymer chain to another. (see diagram below). Borax, which is also, known as sodium borate is a non- toxic substance and has a wide-variety of uses. We need to use our knowledge of chemistry to explain the physical characteristics and chemical behavior of a particular material.

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Our objective in this experiment was to create a polymer ball that was both echo-friendly and nontoxic. Methods/Procedures The following items were used: -Polyvinyl alcohol -Sodium borate -Polyvinyl acetate solid -Starch During week one of our experiment we used all of the ingredients that were given to us. A 10:1 ratio between polyvinyl alcohol and sodium borate was used. We used this ratio because while conducting research, there was a similar experiment to the polymer ball and it said a 10:1 ratio was used. Ml of borax and ml of polyvinyl alcohol was poured into a mall beaker.

Then the mixture was stirred for about 10 minutes until the mixture became a sticky substance. Ml of polyvinyl acetate was hen poured into the mixture. The mixture was stirred for 2-3 minutes. During week two we were supposed to “tweak” our mixture and also make our polymer ball resistant to the heat and cold because it was going to be shipped from Florida to New Mexico to Alaska. During this experiment we changed our experiment using less ingredients and less substances. The only ingredients used were the polyvinyl alcohol and the sodium borate. Ml of polyvinyl alcohol and ml of sodium borate were mixed in a mall beaker. The mixture was stirred until it started to thicken which took about 10-15 minutes. The mixture was taken out of the beaker, and rolled into a ball for about 5 minutes then put back in the beaker and let it sit for 20 minutes. After 20 minutes, the mixture became less sticky and was easier to roll into the shape of a ball. Since we were supposed to create a ball that was resistant to different climate temperatures, the polymer ball was split into two.

Half of the ball would be in hot water and the other would be in ice. Results/Discussion When the Papa and sodium borate were mixed together, the mixture became very sticky and a lot of air bubbles were formed and the mixture also foamed. The mixture kook the shape of the beaker, but when it was taken out of the beaker and was left to sit on the table, the polymer would flatten out. This is called shape memory, “materials that can ‘remember’ their shape after a distortion occurs and can reconfigure its shape upon a stimulus. In the second week of this experiment we planned to not use starch, or polyvinyl polyvinyl acetate solid did nothing to our product. To test the polymer ball as to whether or not the ball could withstand different temperature climates. Two tests were performed. An ice bath test, and a boiling water test. One half of the ball was tinting in a beaker of ice. As soon as the polymer was placed in the beaker it started to steam and immediately it started to freeze. The polymer also started to flatten out.

When it was taken out of the ice it was very slippery and hard to grip. It was also difficult to roll into a ball. But, after it sat in room temperature it was easier to mold into a ball and still carried the “bounce” that a bouncy ball should have. In boiling water experiment, water was boiled in a beaker with the use of a Bunsen burner. After the water was boiling we placed the polymer ball into the water and it melted UT didn’t fully dissolve in the water. There was a layer of the polymer ball floating in the water.

We collected the layer and put the substance into a beaker. When the substance cooled down and was back to room temperature, the substance became very stretchy. The polymer could also be rolled back into a ball. Conclusion In conclusion, we were not able to create a polymer ball that would be able to withstand different climate changes, but were able to create the bouncy ball. The polymers we created did bounce although they were a little floppy and weren’t perfect spheres. The polymer stuck to all surfaces but was easy to pull off. It was moldable and easy to form.

It couldn’t be pulled apart or stretched, Just squished and squeezed. When the polyvinyl acetate solid was added to our first mixture it had glue like color and no changes were made to the substance. When you add borax solution to polymers like PA, it cross-links the two polymers together like a net. Depending on how much of each ingredient is mixed you can either make a mixture that is slimy or stretchy. By adding cornstarch the mixture will be able to bend and stretch the mix. Most plastics are polymers. For example PVC pipes is the continuous linking of the same molecule.

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