Plant Layout Design What is Plant Layout? The organization of a company’s physical facilities to promote the efficient use of equipment, material, people and energy. What are the Goals of Plant Layout Design? Minimize unit costs Optimize quality Promote effective use of people, equipment, space and energy Provide for employee convenience, safety and comfort Control project costs Achieve production deadlines What Procedure is Followed in Plant Layout Design? Plant Layout Procedure – Phase 1 Information Gathering Determine what will be produced Determine how many will be produced
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Determine what components will be made or purchased Determine required operations Determine sequence of operations Set time standards for each operation Plant Layout Procedure – Phase 2 Production and Flow Analysis Determine the plant rate, R Determine the number of machines Balance production lines Study the flow requirement Determine activity relationships Layout each workstation Plant Layout Procedure – Phase 3 Support Services Identify needs for personal and plant services Identify office needs Develop total space requirements Select material handling equipment Allocated area
Develop plot plan and building shape Plant Layout Procedure – Phase 4 Implementation and Evaluation Construct master plan Seek input and adjust Seek approvals Install Start up Follow up What is Flow Analysis? Considers the operations, transportations, inspections, delays, and storages required Analysis? To minimize distance traveled to minimize backtracking to minimize cross-traffic to eliminate unnecessary steps in the process to combine steps in the process to minimize production costs What plant flow analysis techniques are used? Process charts Flow diagrams Operations charts
Process Charts operations transportations storages inspections delays Process Chart Example Analysis of Process Charts Can I eliminate this step? Can I automate this step? Can I combine this step with another? Can I change the routing to reduce distances traveled? Can I move workstations closer together? Can I Justify production aids to increase effectiveness? How much does this part cost to produce? Flow Diagram Graphical diagram which shows the path traveled by each part from receiving to stores to fabrication of each part to final assembly to peacock to warehousing to shipping.
Flow Diagram Example Analysis of Flow Diagrams Is there cross-traffic? Results in congestion and safety hazards eliminated through proper placement of equipment, services and departments Is there backtracking? Costs three times as much as correct flow eliminated through proper location of operations Are transport distances excessive? Distance traveled costs money excessive material handling can degrade quality Operations Charts Graphically show the raw material, the buyouts, the fabrication sequence, the assembly sequence, the equipment needs, the time standards, and a glimpse of Lana layout.
The flow process chart combines the operations chart with the process chart. Effective tools for summarizing plant activities. Operations Chart Example Provides critical information to layout designer including operation requirements, material handling needs, storage needs, inspection requirements, delay reasons. With this information, the designer is challenged to eliminate as many steps as possible, combine steps, eliminate backtracking and cross-traffic, reduce distance traveled, reduce production costs, improve quality and increase safety On to Ergonomics and Job Design