EXAM I VOCABULARY Paleolithic and Neolithic Vocabulary to Know: * Paleolithic – 40,000-8,000 BC Old Stone Age, mankind produced * Neolithic – New Stone Age 1. Comes about at different times at different locations due to ice age ending unevenly 1. Development of organized system of agriculture (replacing hunting gathering community) 1. Domestication of animals 1. Permanent architecture (year round settlements) * Iconography – pictoral representations * sculpture in the round – sculptured on all sides – to be viewed from any angles. Detached from a background. * freestanding sculpture vs. relief sculpture relief is a three-dimensional image or design who flat background surface is carved away to set off the figure. * Free-standing- carved or molded into 3D (sculptures in the round * additive vs. subtractive sculpture – * additive is the addition of materials for a sculpture | subtractive is the removal of material from a block * composite creature – a figure combing the body parts of different animals and humans. * twisted perspective – representation of a figure shown in profile and the body shown frontally * sympathetic magic = magic based on the assumption that the person or thing can be affected through representing it. post and lintel = architectural system of construction, two or more vertical elements (post) supporting a horizontal element (lintel) * megalith – a large stone used in prehistoric building. * cromlech – circle of megalith stones. * henge – A circular area enclosed by stones or wood posts – bounded by a ditch or raised embankment. * Heelstone – located in front of the henge | during the summer solstice sun would rise between two of them * Durrington Walls – contains the remains of Woodhenge the living settlement miles away from Stonehenge. Ancient Near Eastern Art Vocabulary to Know: * Mesopotamia – “land between rivers” Ziggurat – huge stepped structures with a temple or shrine on top – elevating the builds also protected the shrines from flooding. * Inanna – goddess of love and war. Summerian. * Epic of Gilgamesh – A tale of a Sumerian king and his companion who are the sole survivors of a great flood sent by the gods to destroy the world. * Registers – series of bands or friezes in a pictorial narrative or a motif * Votive offering – art piece made as an offering to a god or goddess * Cuneiform – a system of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia. * Stylus – writing tool used to carve into clay slab tablets. Cylinder seal – cylinder engraved with “picture story” used to roll and impression into a two-dimensional surface. * Stele – a carved stone slab used to mark grave or to commemorate historical events. * Gudea – ruler of the Guti, built and restored temples created the Votive statue of Gudea. Conqured the Akkadian Empire. * Hammurabi – ruler in Mesopotamia – noted for his creation of the Hammurabi Code )written legal code that listed lasws and penalties. * Hieratic scale (or hierarchy of scale) – Use of different size to indicate importance- the larger figure, the greater the importance Lamassu – * Xerxes – * Darius III – * Persians – * Alexander the Great – Egyptian Art Vocabulary to Know: * Howard Carter – * Heb-sed festival – * Horus – god who guards the interest of Egypt = Sky god | falcon-headed man * Upper and Lower Egypt – * Intermediate periods – time between the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom in Egypt * ++ * Kemet, deshret – * twisted perspective – representation of a figure shown in profile and the body shown frontally * Egyptians depicted royalty in twisted persepective but people of lesser rank were represented more naturally. Champollion * Rosetta Stone – stone that contained carved messages in hieroglyphics, Greek, and demotic. * Hieroglyphs – system of writing using symbols and pictures * ka – Egyptian concept of the human soul * canon of proportions (width of fist) – ratio between the figures height and the all of its component parts. * Male body – 18 fists between the hairline and heel. * serdab – Sealed room in the mastaba that served as a chamber for the ka statue of a deceased individual (used during the Old Kingdom) * statue with a small hole to allow the soul to move about freely mastaba – a type of Egyptian tomb | flat-roofed rectangular structure with outward sowing sides. (made of mud-brick and stone. * Hyksos – people from western Asian who invaded Egypt and began the second Intermediate period * ankh – * cartouche – * faience – decorated, glazed earthenware | * pylon – monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. | Two tapering towers. | * hypostyle hall – vast hall filed with columns * Aten – the disk of the sun an aspect of Ra (Akhenton and his family) * Amarna – style of art commissioned by Akhenton Swelling forms, androgynous, protruding stomachs, thin long necks, elongated skulls Aegean Art Vocabulary to Know: * Heinrich Schliemann– located and excavated Homeric Troy * Sir Arthur Evans – unearthed a great palace on Crete and named the civilization Minoa after the mythical king Minos (in charge of the Minotars) * Buon fresco – a painting applied to the surface of wet plaster. Absorbed into the plaster and becomes a part of the wall. * Fresco secco – painting on dried paster. * rhyton – fluid container used for ceremonies such as libation (offering of drink to gods) megaron – * tholos – temple with a circular plan * cryselephantine – sculpture made of ivory and beaten gold. * repousse – metalworking technique in which malleable metal is ornamentated and shaped by hammering a design in a low relief (GOLD FUNERARY MASK) Greek Art Vocabulary to Know: * Krater – * Amphora – * Black-figure – black figures on a red background Greek vase painting. * Red-figure – technique of ancient Greek vase painting characterized by red clay colored figures on a black background. * sanctuary – examples = Delphi, Olympia, Athenian Acropolis entasis – slight swelling of the shaft of a greek column | illusion of entasis makes the column appear from afar to be straight. * Homer – * Kouros –statue of male youth * Kore – statue of a goddess or women. * Encaustic – painting technique using pigments mixed with hot wax * Daedalic style – * Daedalic sculpture displays Eastern (“Orientalizing”) influences: wiglike hair, large eyes, and prominent nose. * * Gigantomachy – the symbolic struggle between the cosmic order of Olympians (lead by Zeus) and the nether forces of Chaos led by the giant Alcyoneus. Centauromachy – battle of Centaurs and the Lapiths (Parthenon metopes) * Caryatid – sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support replacing a column * Acropolis – high city. * Frieze – the middle eminent of an entablature that includes the triglyphs and metropes, below the cornice. * Triglyphs and metopes – triglyphs have three parts and between them are the metropes (relief sculptures. ) * Doric – oldest column style | has no base but has triglyphs and metopes * Ionic – has a column but no triglyphs | noted for its scroll flourish | Aegean style. Corinthian – latest most stylized column. | Very popular with neo-classical architecture. * Cella – inner central chamber of the temple * Peicles–prominent Greek general who conviced the people of Athens to redecorate * Phidias – sculpture, painter, and architect: Statue of Zeus at Olympia & Athena Parthenos. * Athena Parthenos – chryselephantine sculpture of Athena by Phidias located in the Parthenon in Athens. * chryselephantine – the use of ivory and gold. * Lord Elgin – Englishman who removed the marble sculptures from the Parthenon in Athens. Tesserae – both marble and semiprecious stones * Mosaic – patterns or pictures made by embedding small pieces of stone or glass. * Skopas – sculptor and architect * Pathos – emotional expression in sculptures via wrinkled foreheads, deep set eyes. * Contrapposto – human figure placing most of its weight on one food so that the shoulders and arms twist off axis from the hips and legs. (gives the figure a more dynamic and relaxed appearance. * Agora – “place of assembly” in Greek city-states. Political and commercial space (marketplace)
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