Home ยป Multimedia Journalism: Problems & Prospects

Multimedia Journalism: Problems & Prospects

Introduction News is the abbreviation of the four directions-North, East, West and South, meaning that it covers all the events happening around us. News provides information which enhances knowledge. It is the right of a human being to know what is happening around him/her. Throughout time, the journalism industry has gone through several changes. At the beginning, there were only weekly magazines providing readers with information and knowledge about the society, and then came the daily newspapers which provide all the happenings in our country and abroad.

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After that came the TV which provided audiences to view as well as listen the news and then came the internet which gave birth to online news allowing people to get news over the internet irrespective of where the person is located. Now, online news is being taken one step further, the news agencies in Bangladesh will provide news bulletins like those in TV along with the text on the website. This is done to allow the audience to see the news anytime along with reading the news report. Hopefully, people will accept this initiative and allow the journalism industry to go through a change.

What is Multimedia Journalism? Multimedia journalism is a new form of news reporting which includes a print or online story supplemented by some other form of media that is more interactive than just the text. Stories or reports in multimedia journalism require additional skills from journalists, but provide readers with more choices to interact and be informed. If the readers choose to read the articles only, they can do so. However, the readers can also watch the supplemental video and be on the scene with the reporter, or listen to sound clips taken at the scene.

In this way, the stories or articles become more enjoyable and may help some readers better understand an issue. In addition, with the help of multimedia journalism readers may save time by watching a two-minute video clip instead of taking five minutes to read an article. Objectives of the Study The objective of my research is to find out whether this multimedia journalism can overcome the challenges. Challenges in multimedia journalism can be in the form of readers’ acceptability of the news report. The journalists have to provide people all the information in a report.

The readers/viewers have the right to know all the information. The news must be delivered to the audience at the shortest possible time. In my project, I conducted a survey to get the data needed to prove that although at present this multimedia journalism has some challenges, but its potential will take to the doorstep of success in the future. Multimedia journalism will be beneficial to the people in large because it will help to transfer accurate information quickly to all in all places which is everybody’s right.

Through my research, I hope to find whether this new type of media can overcome the challenges at present and revolutionize the journalism industry. I also want to find out whether the people in Bangladesh appreciate this multimedia journalism or reject this. Significance of the Study The reason I have chosen this topic is that the type of news we are providing to the public is difficult in the sense that we have to go to the scene and gather information using video camera like TV journalism and at the same time we have to prepare report for the website. Therefore we are preparing the same news for two types of media.

This is difficult to implement because the internet infrastructure in Bangladesh is less developed than other developed countries, even the neighboring countries. However, if the challenges in this type of journalism like accuracy of information, immediate updates, delivery of news at the shortest possible time are overcome then this would benefit the journalism industry as news can be updated frequently compared to the conventional news medium. The NRBs living abroad would also benefit from multimedia journalism as they would get accurate information from places where Bangladeshi satellite TV channels did not reach yet. Hypothesis

For my project, I have come with the hypothesis that “If news agencies provide multimedia news accurately containing all information within the shortest possible time on the web people will watch it. ” Methodology of research For my project I carried out survey to gather primary data. The survey is a combination of stratified random sample and cluster sample. This is because there are readers and viewers of news of all ages in this country, so random sampling would be convenient for this purpose and cluster sampling would help me to gather information from different professions top get a diversified idea about the population.

This survey has been carried in all parts of the city as it may not be viable to go outside the city due to time constraint. For data analysis, I have used tools like graphical presentation, frequency, percentage, cross tabs, t-test, z-test, chi-square analysis, ANOVA, regression, etc. The size of the survey questionnaire consists of 19 questions. I believe that the questionnaire contains sufficient number of questions to get me enough information to do my research. I have conducted survey on 120 populations. General Analysis Question # 4. Do you have access to internet?

In the questionnaire, when this question was asked to the respondents, the response is given below Statistics access to internet N Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance Minimum Maximum Valid Missing 120 0 1. 1500 1. 0000 1. 00 . 35857 . 129 1. 00 2. 00 access to internet yes no access to internet Cumulative Percent 85. 0 100. 0 Frequency Valid yes no Total 102 18 120 Percent 85. 0 15. 0 100. 0 Valid Percent 85. 0 15. 0 100. 0 In this question, the respondents were asked whether they have access to internet. They were given three options- yes, no and don’t know. It was ound that 85% of the respondents said that they have access while the rest 15% said that they do not have access to internet. None of the respondents opted “don’t know” option. The question is important because multimedia news is provided on internet and if people do not have access to internet then there is no use of providing news on internet. Question # 9. What type of news do you watch? When this question was asked to the respondents the response that was received is given below. Statistics type of news you watch type of news you watch N Valid Missing Mean Median Mode Std.

Deviation Variance Minimum Maximum 120 0 6. 8500 8. 0000 8. 00 2. 12488 4. 515 1. 00 9. 00 Frequency 5 6 3 5 4 8 8 77 4 120 Percent 4. 2 5. 0 2. 5 4. 2 3. 3 6. 7 6. 7 64. 2 3. 3 100. 0 Valid Percent 4. 2 5. 0 2. 5 4. 2 3. 3 6. 7 6. 7 64. 2 3. 3 100. 0 Cumulative Percent 4. 2 9. 2 11. 7 15. 8 19. 2 25. 8 32. 5 96. 7 100. 0 Valid national sports international crime politics business/econo mics lifestyle/fashion/ entertainment all of the above none of the above Total type of news you watch 70 60 50 Percent 40 30 20 10 0 ts or sp ft lo al e im cr lif

For this question, the options given were national, sports, international, crime, politics, business/economics, lifestyle/entertainment, all of the above and none of the above. The purpose of asking this question was to find which type of news people watch on TV. By analyzing the data, it was found that among all the types of news that usually can be seen on TV news, 64. 2% of the respondents chose “all of the above” option. 3. 3% of the tio na l na s ic lit po co /e ss ne si bu ne no at rn te in l na io le ty es /fa i sh on s ic t of he ab e ov he e ov ab m no n /e te rt nm ai en t ype of news you watch respondents chose “none of the above”, saying they do not watch TV news. 4. 2% of response came for national news, 5% for sports, 2. 5% for international, 6. 7% for economics/business news and lifestyle/entertainment news respectively. It was seen that most of the respondents watch the whole news bulletin and some watch only a particular type of news. So it can be said that to gain viewers, multimedia news agencies need to provide all types of news from national to sports to lifestyle news. This is obvious because a news agency should gather news from all segments.

So if all the news can be provided on internet then people willing to watch news from various segments will visit the website to watch multimedia news. Question # 13. Do you agree that journalists put all the information in the news reports? Statistics journalists put all the information in the news reports journalists put all the information in the news reports N Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance Minimum Maximum Valid Missing 120 0 1. 6833 1. 0000 1. 00 1. 02886 1. 059 1. 00 5. 00 Valid strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree Total Cumulative Percent 59. 2 84. 2 90. 8 97. 5 100. 0 Frequency 71 30 8 8 3 120

Percent 59. 2 25. 0 6. 7 6. 7 2. 5 100. 0 Valid Percent 59. 2 25. 0 6. 7 6. 7 2. 5 100. 0 journalists put all the information in the news reports 60 50 40 Percent 30 20 10 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree journalists put all the information in the news reports The purpose of asking this question to the respondents was to find whether they believe that journalists give all the information or there is information gap. By analyzing the data, it was found that 59. 2% respondents strongly agreed that the journalists do not hide any information; they provide all the information to the public. 5% of the respondents think that journalists provide all the information and 6. 7% respondents opted for “neutral” option saying that they do not want to comment on the question. 6. 7% respondents disagreed to the question saying that they believe journalists hide some information for some reason creating an information gap. Only 2. 5% respondents strongly disagreed to this question believing that journalists do not provide all the information, they usually hide information in order to serve a particular person’s or organization’s interest. If we look at the mean value of the responses received, it is 1. 833. It can be said that on an average people believe that journalists do not hide any information from the public. This question is important because I wanted to know what the people think about the journalists and do they believe that there is any information gap. Question # 14. Would you watch multimedia news on the internet if it provides all the information in its report? Statistics watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report N Valid 120 Missing 0 Mean 1. 3167 Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance Minimum Maximum 1. 0000 1. 00 . 63489 . 403 1. 00 3. 00 atch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report Cumulative Percent 77. 5 90. 8 100. 0 Valid yes no don’t know Total Frequency 93 16 11 120 Percent 77. 5 13. 3 9. 2 100. 0 Valid Percent 77. 5 13. 3 9. 2 100. 0 watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report 80 60 Percent 40 20 0 yes no don’t know watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report This question follows the previous question; it asks the respondents that if multimedia news provides all the information in its report whether they would watch it.

They were given three options-yes, no and don’t know. It was found that 77. 5% of the response was “yes” while 13. 3% was “no” and the rest 9. 2% was for “don’t know”. This question is important because by analyzing this question, it can be observed that audience give importance to accuracy of information and they want to know all the information about a particular topic. The people believe that they have the right to know and they watch news to know all about any particular issue. If we look at the mean, median and mode value of this question, we can see that mean value is 1. 167 and median is 1 and mode is also 1. The standard deviation for this question is 0. 63489, meaning there is little difference in opinion of the respondents. This proves that if multimedia news provides all the information then people would watch it. Question # 15. Which of the media given below provides the immediate updated news? Statistics Which media given provides the immediate updated news N Valid 120 Missing 0 Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance Minimum Maximum 2. 4000 3. 0000 3. 00 . 77134 . 595 1. 00 4. 00 Which media given provides the immediate updated news ewspaper TV news online news all of the above Which media given provides the immediate updated news Cumulative Percent 15. 8 45. 8 98. 3 100. 0 Valid newspaper TV news online news all of the above Total Frequency 19 36 63 2 120 Percent 15. 8 30. 0 52. 5 1. 7 100. 0 Valid Percent 15. 8 30. 0 52. 5 1. 7 100. 0 For this question the respondents were given four options- newspaper, TV news, online news, all of the above and none of the above. If we look at the mean, median and mode of this question we can see that mean value is 2. 4, mode value is 3 and median alue is also 3, meaning that most respondents chose option 3 which is online news. From the above information, it can also be seen that 52. 5% of the respondents said they believe that online news provides the most immediate updated news. Then, some also believe that TV news provides the most immediate news, it got 30% of the total response. Some of the respondents believe that newspapers provide immediate updates on news events, giving it 15. 8% response. Only 1. 7% of the respondents believe that all newspapers, TV news and online news provide immediate update on current happenings.

In the survey, nobody chose the option of “none of the above”. This question is important because one of the key elements for a news agency to survive in the market is time. If any news agency cannot provide information in the shortest possible time than it will not be able to attract readers or viewers. Similarly, to be successful the news agency must provide immediate update of news as soon as possible. It is only then people will watch multimedia news on internet released by the news agency. Question # 16. Would you watch multimedia news on the internet if it is updated immediately after the news is developed?

Statistics Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately N Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance Minimum Maximum Valid Missing 120 0 1. 2750 1. 0000 1. 00 . 59356 . 352 1. 00 3. 00 Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately Cumulative Percent 80. 0 92. 5 100. 0 Frequency Valid yes no don’t know Total 96 15 9 120 Percent 80. 0 12. 5 7. 5 100. 0 Valid Percent 80. 0 12. 5 7. 5 100. 0 Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately 80 60 Percent 40 20 0 yes no don’t know

Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately This question is a follow up of the previous question no. 15 which asked for the opinion of the respondents about which media gives the immediate updated news. In this question the respondents were given three options- yes, no and don’t know. The purpose of this question was to find whether the respondents would watch multimedia news if it provided news in the shortest possible time with immediate update. From the data analyzed, we found the mean value to be 1. 275, median to be 1 and mode to be 1 as well.

This states that most of the respondents chose first option which is “yes”. The standard deviation is about 0. 59356 which is because most of the respondents chose “yes” option and a few chose the other two options. From the graphical presentation it was seen that 80% of the respondents said that they would watch multimedia news if it provides immediate updates as the news is developed. While, 12. 5% of the respondents said that they would not watch multimedia news even if it was updated immediately. The rest 7. 5% did not comment on whether they watch multimedia news or not.

Therefore, from the data analysis it can be said that if the news agency provides multimedia news with immediate update people will watch the news. Question # 17. Which one from the options given below do you think gives you the most accurate news? Statistics Which options gives the most accurate news N Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance Minimum Maximum Valid Missing 120 0 1. 7167 2. 0000 1. 00 . 81151 . 659 1. 00 4. 00 Which options gives the most accurate news newspapers TV bulletins online/website news all of the above Which options gives the most accurate news Frequency 56 47 12 5 120 Percent 46. 39. 2 10. 0 4. 2 100. 0 Valid Percent 46. 7 39. 2 10. 0 4. 2 100. 0 Cumulative Percent 46. 7 85. 8 95. 8 100. 0 Valid newspapers TV bulletins online/website news all of the above Total The purpose of this question was to find according to the respondents’ opinion, which media gives people the most accurate news. They were given with the optionsnewspapers, TV bulletins, online/website news, all of the above and none of the above. If we look at the statistical result, we can see that the mean value is 1. 7167, median is 2 and mode is 1, meaning that most people opted for option 1.

The respondents on an average chose option 1 as well. The standard deviation was high, it was 0. 81151 as most of the respondents chose option 1 and 2 and only a few chose 3 and 4. If we look at the graphical presentation, we can see that 46. 7% of the respondents believe that newspapers give them the most accurate news. 39. 2% respondents believe that TV bulletins provide the viewers with the most accurate news. Only 10% believe that online websites give them the most accurate news. 10% of the respondents think online/website news provide most accurate news. Only 4. % respondents think that all the print and electronic media provide the most accurate news. However, none of the respondents chose the option “none of the above”. This question is important because one of the key elements to survive in media is accuracy. So if a news agency does not provide with accurate news no one will watch its news and soon it will be out of the market. Question # 18. Would you watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news? Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news Statistics Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news N Mean Median Mode Std.

Deviation Variance Minimum Maximum Valid Missing 120 0 1. 2167 1. 0000 1. 00 . 53740 . 289 1. 00 3. 00 yes no don’t know Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news Cumulative Percent 84. 2 94. 2 100. 0 Valid yes no don’t know Total Frequency 101 12 7 120 Percent 84. 2 10. 0 5. 8 100. 0 Valid Percent 84. 2 10. 0 5. 8 100. 0 In this question the respondents were given three options- yes, no and don’t know. The purpose of this question was to find whether the respondents would watch multimedia news if it provided news accurately.

Accuracy is important because people want to know exactly what is happening in the society, country or anywhere in the planet. Form the calculated statistics, it can be seen that mean is 1. 2167, median is 1 and mode is 1. So it can be said that most of the respondents shoes option 1. The standard deviation is 0. 5374 as most of the responses were for option 1 and only a few for option 2 and 3. From the graphical presentation, it was seen that 84. 2% of the respondents said that they would watch multimedia news if it accurate news.

While 10% of the respondents said that they would not watch multimedia news even if it provided accurate news. The rest 5. 8% did not comment on whether they watch multimedia news or not. Therefore, it can be said that accuracy of news an important element for attracting people. So if the news agency wants people to watch its multimedia news then it has to provide accurate news. Cross Tabulation Analysis Some cross tabulation analysis and Chi-Square tests were performed for better analysis of the research and derive best possible output from the research.

I conducted and ran cross tabs and Chi-Square analysis for some important aspects and points of this report which would be supporting our main hypothesis. Some of the variables that were used in order to run the cross tabs and Chi- Square tests are? ? ? ? ? The relation of internet usage to reading news on internet. The accuracy of news influencing people to watch multimedia news. The type of news people prefer to watch if provided on internet in the form of multimedia news. Importance of all information in a report and the willingness of people to watch multimedia news.

The importance of immediate update of news as they are developed. Now, analysis and interpretation of the data will be carried to get supporting points for the main hypothesis. Cross tabulation 1 Case Processing Summary Valid N frequency of using internet * Read news on internet 120 Percent 100. 0% N Cases Missing Percent 0 . 0% Total N 120 Percent 100. 0% frequency of using internet * Read news on internet Crosstabulation Count yes frequency of using internet Total regularly occasionally rarely Read news on internet no don’t know 86 6 6 10 7 0 2 2 1 98 15 7 Total 98 17 5 120

The purpose of this doing this cross tabulation is to find a relation between frequency of using internet and reading news on internet. This is because I wanted to know whether people who use internet regularly, do they visit news websites to read news. If this is so, then it can be said that people who have access to internet, regularly read news on websites. It is seen that 86 of the respondents who regularly use internet read news on the internet. Only 6 respondents who regularly use internet do not read news on internet and 6 people who regularly use internet did not comment on whether they read news on internet.

Then, 10 of the respondents who occasionally use internet said they read news on internet and 7 respondents said that they do not use internet as they often use internet. 2 of the respondents who rarely use internet said they read news on internet whenever they have access to internet and 2 persons who rarely use internet said that they do not read news on internet due to their frequency of using internet. 1 person said that s/he does not read news on internet as s/he do not use internet regularly. So from this cross tabulation, it is found that those who regularly use internet read news on the internet.

This proves that if most people have access to internet and use internet regularly they read news on the internet and there is a chance that they may also watch multimedia news on the internet. Cross tabulation 2 Which options gives the most accurate news * Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news Cross tabulation Case Processing Summary Valid N Which options gives the most accurate news * Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news Percent N Cases Missing Percent Total N Percent 120 100. 0% 0 .0% 120 100. 0% Count

Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news yes Which options gives the most accurate news Total newspapers TV bulletins online/website news all of the above 20 9 58 14 101 no 6 4 2 0 12 don’t know 1 3 3 0 7 Total 27 16 63 14 120 The purpose of this cross tabulation is to find how the respondents would react if multimedia news is provided with accurate information just like their chosen media. By running this cross tabulation, it is found that 58 out of 63 respondents who believe that online/website news gives the most accurate news said that they would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news.

The rest of the 5 respondents who believe that online news provides accurate news said either they would not watch multimedia news or they don’t know whether they would watch multimedia news. Then, 20 respondents out of 27 who believe that newspapers give the most accurate news also said that they would watch multimedia news if accurate news is provided. Then 9 respondents out of 16 who think that TV bulletins provide the most accurate news said that they would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news.

Only 4 persons who think that TV bulletins provide the most accurate news said that they will not watch multimedia news even if it provides accurate news. The rest 3 respondents among the ones who think that TV bulletins provide accurate news remain indecisive about watching multimedia news if it provides the most accurate news. Therefore, it can be said that 101 respondents of the sample who opted either of the given options said that they would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news. So, if accurate news is provided then people will watch multimedia news.

Cross tabulation 3 type of news you watch * watch opted news along with video clips if provided on internet Crosstabulation Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N type of news you watch * watch opted news along with video clips if provided on internet 120 Percent 100. 0% N Missing Percent 0 . 0% Total N 120 Percent 100. 0% type of news you watch * watch opted news along with video clips if provided on internet Crosstabulation Count watch opted news along with video clips if provided on internet yes no don’t know 3 2 0 4 1 1 2 0 1 4 1 0 3 1 0 6 8 53 4 87 2 0 17 0 24 0 0 7 0 9

Total 5 6 3 5 4 8 8 77 4 120 type of news you watch national sports international crime politics business/econo mics lifestyle/fashion/ entertainment all of the above none of the above Total The purpose of this cross tabulation is to find that if the type of news which the respondents watch on TV is provided with video clips on the internet, how they would react. It is found that 53 of the respondents who said that watch all type of news, also said that they would watch these news on the internet if they are provided with video clips along with text report.

On the other hand, 17 respondents who watch all types of news said that they would not watch video clips of the news if it is provided with text. While, 7 respondents who watch all types of news on TV said that they do not know whether they would watch video clips with text. Then, the respondents who watch any particular type of news on TV, most of them said that they would watch multimedia news if it provides video clips along with text report. Since, from the acquired sample it is found that most of the respondents watch all types of news in a TV bulletin it is important for the news agency to provide all types of news on the website.

Thus, people will watch the multimedia news on the internet. Cross tabulation 4 journalists put all the information in the news reports * watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report Crosstabulation Case Processing Summary Cases Missing Percent Valid N journalists put all the information in the news reports * watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report Percent N Total N Percent 120 100. 0% 0 .0% 120 100. 0%

Count watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report yes journalists put all the information in the news reports strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree Total 61 17 5 7 3 93 no 8 5 2 1 0 16 don’t know 2 8 1 0 0 11 Total 71 30 8 8 3 120 The purpose of doing this cross tabulation is to determine the reaction of the respondents, who believe that journalists provide all the information in their reports, when they will know that multimedia news will also provide news with all information in it.

Out of the sample 61 respondents who strongly agree that journalists put all the information in the news reports said that they would watch multimedia news on the internet if it provides all the information. However, 8 of the respondents who strongly agreed that journalists provide all the information said they would not watch multimedia news even if it provides all information in the report. Only 2 of the respondents who believe that journalists provide all the information were not sure of watching multimedia news if it provides all information. 7 respondents who agree that journalists provide all information in the report said that they would also watch multimedia news if all information is provided in the news. Only, 5 of the respondents who agreed to the statement that journalists do provide all the information in their reports said they would not watch multimedia news. The rest 8 respondents, who agreed to the statement, were indecisive about watching multimedia news. 8 respondents did not give their opinion on the statement that journalists provide all information in the reports.

Among them 5 persons said that they would watch multimedia news if it provides all information, 2 respondents said that they would not watch and 1 person did not comment on whether s/he would watch multimedia news if it provides all information in the report. The ones who disagreed to the statement, among them 7 respondents said that they would watch multimedia news if it provides all information and only 1 person said that s/he will not watch multimedia news even if it provides all information in its reports. persons completely disagreed to this statement and all of them said that they would watch multimedia news if it provides all information without hiding any. Therefore, the conclusion can be drawn that if all the information is provided then people will watch multimedia news. Cross tabulation 5 Which media given provides the immediate updated news * Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately Crosstabulation Case Processing Summary Valid N Which media given provides the immediate updated news * Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately Percent N Cases Missing Percent N Total Percent 20 100. 0% 0 .0% 120 100. 0% Count Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately yes no don’t know 14 3 2 22 9 5 58 3 2 2 0 0 96 15 9 Total 19 36 63 2 120 Which media given provides the immediate updated news Total newspaper TV news online news all of the above This cross tabulation is done to find the reaction of the respondents who said that their preferred type of media provides the immediate updated news, if multimedia news if it provides immediate updates on the happenings.

It is found that 58 respondents from the sample who believe that online news provides immediate updated news said that they would watch multimedia news if it provides updated news immediately. While, 3 of the respondents said that they would not watch multimedia news even if it provides immediate updated news and the rest 2 respondents did not say anything about watching multimedia news on internet. 22 of the respondents who think that TV news gives them the immediate update said that they would watch multimedia news if the news is updated immediately.

Only 9 of the respondents said they would not watch multimedia news even if the news is updated immediately as the news is developed and the other 5 respondents who think TV news provides immediate updates did not comment on their desire to watch multimedia news. Then, 14 of the respondents who think newspapers provide immediate updates said they would watch multimedia news if they are updated immediately while 3 said they would not watch the multimedia news. 2 of the respondents, who think newspapers provide immediate news, were indecisive about watching multimedia news.

Therefore, it can be concluded that if multimedia news is updated immediately after the news is developed then people will watch it. Chi-Square Testing Chi-Square Testing # 1 Ho: There is no relationship between frequency of using internet and reading news on internet. Ha: There is a relationship between frequency of using internet and reading news on internet. frequency of using internet Observed N 88 11 3 102 Read news on internet Observed N 91 8 3 102 Expected N 34. 0 34. 0 34. 0 Residual 57. 0 -26. 0 -31. 0 Test Statistics Expected N 34. 0 34. 0 34. 0 Residual 54. -23. 0 -31. 0 regularly often rarely Total yes no don’t know Total frequency of using internet ChiSquare(a) df Asymp. Sig. 129. 588 2 . 000 Read news on internet 143. 706 2 . 000 a 0 cells (. 0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 34. 0. According to table, the p value is less than 0. 05. The null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. Because p-value (0. 000) < ? (0. 05); where ? is the significance level. So it means that there is a relationship between frequency of using internet and reading news on the internet.

Those respondents who use internet frequently read news on the internet. Therefore, it can be said that if more people use internet frequently then there is a chance that they will watch multimedia news on internet. Chi-Square Testing # 2 Ho: There is no relationship between the media giving the most accurate news and the willingness of people to watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news. Ha: There is a relationship between the media giving the most accurate news and the willingness of people to watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news.

Which options gives the most accurate news newspapers TV bulletins online/website news all of the above Total Observed N 27 16 63 14 120 Expected N 30. 0 30. 0 30. 0 30. 0 Residual -3. 0 -14. 0 33. 0 -16. 0 Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news Observed N yes no don’t know Total 101 12 7 120 Expected N 40. 0 40. 0 40. 0 Residual 61. 0 -28. 0 -33. 0 Test Statistics Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news 139. 850 2 . 000 Which options gives the most accurate news ChiSquare(a,b) df Asymp. Sig. 51. 667 3 . 000 a 0 cells (. %) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 30. 0. b 0 cells (. 0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 40. 0. According to table, the p value is less than 0. 05. So, the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected because p-value (0. 000) ; ? (0. 05); where ? is the significance level. Therefore, it can be said that there is a relationship between the media giving the most accurate news and people’s willingness to watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news. Chi-Square Testing # 3

Ho: There is no relationship between type of news a person watches and the willingness to watch that opted news along with video clips if provided on internet. Ha: There is a relationship between type of news a person watches and the willingness to watch that opted news along with video clips if provided on internet. type of news you watch Observed N 4 1 3 4 4 3 8 75 102 Expected N 12. 8 12. 8 12. 8 12. 8 12. 8 12. 8 12. 8 12. 8 Residual -8. 8 -11. 8 -9. 8 -8. 8 -8. 8 -9. 8 -4. 8 62. 3 national sports international crime politics business/economics lifestyle/fashion/enterta inment all of the above Total atch opted news along with video clips if provided on internet yes no don’t know Total Observed N 86 24 9 119 Expected N 39. 7 39. 7 39. 7 Residual 46. 3 -15. 7 -30. 7 Test Statistics watch opted news along with video clips if provided on internet type of news you watch Chi349. 451 84. 017 Square(a,b) df 7 2 Asymp. Sig. .000 . 000 a 0 cells (. 0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 12. 8. b 0 cells (. 0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 39. 7. Taking ? to be 0. 05. According to the table, p value is less than 0. 05.

So, the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected as p-value (0. 000) < ? (0. 05); where ? is the significance level. From this it can be said that there is a relationship between the type of news a person watches and the willingness to watch that opted news if it is provided on the internet. So if multimedia news provides the type of news a person watches people will watch it on the internet. Chi-Square Testing # 4 Ho: There is no relationship between the fact that journalists put all the information in the news reports and the willingness of people to watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report.

Ha: There is a relationship between the fact that journalists put all the information in the news reports and the willingness of people to watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report. journalists put all the information in the news reports Observed N 71 30 8 8 3 120 Expected N 24. 0 24. 0 24. 0 24. 0 24. 0 Residual 47. 0 6. 0 -16. 0 -16. 0 -21. 0 strongly agree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree Total watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report Observed N 93 16 11 120 Expected N 40. 0 40. 0 40. 0 Residual 53. -24. 0 -29. 0 yes no don’t know Total Test Statistics watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report 105. 650 2 . 000 journalists put all the information in the news reports ChiSquare(a,b) df Asymp. Sig. 133. 250 4 . 000 a 0 cells (. 0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 24. 0. b 0 cells (. 0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 40. 0. According to table, the p value is less than 0. 05. The null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. Because p-value (0. 000) ; ? (0. 5); where ? is the significance level. So it means that there is a relationship between the fact that journalists put all the information in the news reports and the willingness of people to watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its. Therefore, it can be said that if all the information are provided in the news then people will watch multimedia news on the internet. Chi-Square Testing # 5 Ho: There is no relationship between media providing the immediate updated news and the willingness to watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately.

Ha: There is a relationship between media providing the immediate updated news and the willingness to watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately. Which media given provides the immediate updated news newspaper TV news online news all of the above Total Observed N 19 36 63 2 120 Expected N 30. 0 30. 0 30. 0 30. 0 Residual -11. 0 6. 0 33. 0 -28. 0 Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately yes no don’t know Observed N 96 15 9 Expected N 40. 0 40. 0 40. 0 Residual 56. 0 -25. 0 -31. 0 Total 120 Test Statistics Which media given provides the immediate updated news ChiSquare(a,b) df Asymp. Sig. 67. 67 3 . 000 Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately 118. 050 2 . 000 a 0 cells (. 0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 30. 0. b 0 cells (. 0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 40. 0. According to table, the p value is less than 0. 05. The null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. This is because p-value (0. 000) < ? (0. 05); where ? is the significance level. It means that there is a relationship between media providing immediate updated news and the willingness to watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately.

Therefore, it can be said that if multimedia news is updated immediately as the news is developed people will watch multimedia news on the internet. Regression Analysis Regression Analysis # 1 Model Watch multimedia news = ? 0 + ? 1 X1 +? 2 X2+ ? 3 X3 + ? 4X4 ++ ? 5 X5 +? 6 X6+? I ?0 = Intercept X1 = Access to internet X2= Preference of watching TV news X3= Opted news with video clips X4= All information X5 = Immediate updated X6 = Accurate news ?1, ? 2, ? 3, ? 4, ? 5, ? 6 are the Coefficient of X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 respectively. ?I = Error term Model Summary Adjusted R Square Std.

Error of the Estimate Model R R Square Durbin-Watson 1 .782(a) .612 .591 .65028 1. 959 a Predictors: (Constant), Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news, prefer watching TV news over reading news on internet, watch opted news along with video clips if provided on internet, watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report, Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately , access to internet b Dependent Variable: Multimedia news enables viewers to understand particular issue in detail For the purpose of regression analysis, ? = 5% or . 5 From the above table it can be seen that the adjusted R-square, if not supremely high, the figure (59. 1%) is considerable enough to prove the somewhat validity of our regression model. Rest (40. 9%) of the dependency of the model is unexplained. This is probably due to the fact that here we have neglected some crucial variables like geographical location, internet infrastructure and others. Still through this model it can be argued that, people would watch multimedia news if it is provided with accuracy, all the information, all types of news and with regular updates provided people have access to internet.

Durbin-Watson, d,= 1. 959 and dL, ,= 1. 57 Therefore d > dL.. So, there is a positive serial autocorrelation. Coefficients(a) Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 B (Constant) access to internet prefer watching TV news over reading news on internet watch opted news along with video clips if provided on internet watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news . 765 2. 645 -. 020 Std. Error . 264 . 407 . 095 Standardized Coefficients Beta . 936 -. 014 t 2. 02 6. 502 -. 208 Sig. .004 . 000 . 836 .123 .138 .075 .892 .374 .252 .139 .153 1. 812 .073 .009 .190 .005 .046 .963 .011 .150 .006 .075 .940 a Dependent Variable: Multimedia news enables viewers to understand particular issue in detail From the above table calculated using SPSS, we found the intercept as well as the value of all?. The value of the intercept is 0. 765. the value of ? 1 is 2. 645,value of ? 2 is – 0. 02,value of ? 3 is 0. 123,value of ? 4, is 0. 252,value of ? 5, is 0. 009 and ? 6 is 0. 011. Therefore the equation turns out to be Watch multimedia news = 0. 756 + 2. 645X1 – 0. 02X2 + 0. 23X3 + 0. 252X4+0. 009 X5 + 0. 011X6+? I From the above equation, we can say that 0. 756 unit of people will watch multimedia news irrespective of a change in any variables in the equation. 1unit of positive change in access to internet can increase a person’s willingness to watch multimedia news by 2. 645 units. P-value=0. 000. 05. Therefore this factor is significant. 1 unit of positive change in availability news along with video clips on internet leads to an increase of 0. 123 unit of willingness to watch multimedia news. The Pvalue=0. 374>0. 05 and so the factor is significant in this equation. unit of positive change in providing all information in news leads to an increase in person’s willingness to watch multimedia news by 0. 252 units. The P-value =0. 073>0. 05. Therefore the factor is significant and is accepted. If there is a positive change in immediate update of multimedia news then there will be a positive change of 0. 009 units in the person’s willingness to watch multimedia news. The P-value=0. 963>0. 05 and so it is significant in this equation. 1 unit of positive change in accuracy of news will lead to an increase in 0. 011 units in the person’s willingness to watch multimedia news.

ANOVA(b) Model 1 Sum of Squares Regressio n Residual Total 74. 572 47. 361 df 6 112 Mean Square 12. 429 . 423 F 29. 392 Sig. .000(a) 121. 933 118 a Predictors: (Constant), Would watch multimedia news if it provides accurate news, prefer watching TV news over reading news on internet, watch opted news along with video clips if provided on internet, watch multimedia news on internet if it provides all information in its report, Watch multimedia news on internet if it is updated immediately , access to internet b Dependent Variable: Multimedia news enables viewers to understand particular issue in detail

Here f value is 29. 392 and it’s P-value= 0. 000 Critical t (1. 960) Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted at 95% confidence interval. Hence it is clear that people believe that multimedia news enables viewers to better understand a news as the viewer can get information from both the text and video clip report. Hypothesis Testing # 2 This test was conducted on question #19 which tries to find what people think about multimedia news and whether they will accept multimedia journalism. Ho: People will not accept multimedia journalism. Ha: People will accept multimedia journalism.

One-Sample Statistics N opinion/suggestion on multimedia news 35 Mean 1. 1143 Std. Deviation . 32280 Std. Error Mean . 05456 One-Sample Test Test Value = 0 Mean Difference 1. 11429 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper 1. 0034 1. 2252 t opinion/suggestion on multimedia news 20. 422 df 34 Sig. (2-tailed) . 000 From the above output of SPSS one sample T test, valuable information can be found. From the table it is found that: Here, ? = 5% or 0. 05. So, ? /2 = . 025 Calculated t =20. 422 at 34 degrees of freedom and 95% confidence interval From the t Distribution table: we get Critical t = 2. 042 (as 34~30) So, Calculated t (20. 22)> Critical t (2. 042) Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted at 95% confidence interval. Therefore, it is clear that people believe that multimedia journalism will be accepted in the society. Discussions of results In this project, I did some calculations, T-tests, Regression analysis, Chi-square tests. I have found that people believe that accuracy of information, all the contents in a report, delivery of report with immediate update at quickest time, coverage of all types of news and others are the important elements which must be kept in mind of any news media.

Multimedia journalism will have to overcome these key elements to enter into the journalism industry and at the same time fight to survive in the industry. Recommendations The hypothesis generated for this project is that the hypothesis that “If news agencies provide multimedia news on the web people will watch it. ” After determining the hypothesis, the questionnaire was developed that took into consideration the key elements needed by any news organization to enter and stay in the market. Then, the data was collected from various places.

After analyzing the data using SPSS, some recommendations needed to be given in order to overcome the challenges multimedia journalism is facing. The agencies must provide accurate information to the readers/viewers in the news report. They must also provide all the information to the audience and deliver the report within the shortest possible time. There is another problem that the industry may face, it is internet infrastructure. It cannot be cannot be controlled by the news agencies, but by the government. The government needs to develop infrastructure for internet throughout the country.

This is because if the population does not have access to internet, then the multimedia reports would be useless if it is not watched by audience. Limitations of the Study While writing this paper, I face few limitations that affected my performance. Among which, time was the biggest constraint, I had very little time to write this paper as I am working in News and Images and so I had to allocate time to finish my paper. Then, there was the electricity and load-shedding problem in the country. This frequently interrupted work. Then, lack of cooperation from the potential sample population.

All these created disturbance in my research work. Conclusion Because of limited time and resources I could not survey a larger sample size which would truly be representative of the entire population. If I had time and the necessary resources I could have collected data from all over Dhaka and even outside Dhaka city. The sampling error would be reduced by far. Due to time constraint I could not consider all the variables that could also be a challenge to multimedia journalism. I only considered the problem regarding the main elements that are important for any news agency, newspaper, TV bulletin or any other news media.

There might be other variables that could pose as a challenge to multimedia journalism. However, I could not consider all the variables when conducting the research. All these other variables may be considered for further research in order to be absolutely sure that by overcoming the challenges multimedia journalism could flourish in the journalism industry. Even though most of the respondents have agreed that they would watch multimedia news if news agencies provided news with accurate information, ensure delivery of all information in the shortest possible time, I am entirely sure whether the respondents would actually do so.

So the news agencies willing to start this new type of journalism need to take this under consideration before they decide to launch their websites. Further research has to be done in order to be absolutely certain. From the research I came to the conclusion that multimedia journalism has some challenges. If they provide the audience with the key elements they want from any news organization, they will be able to attract the audience’s attention.

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