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Leadership requires knowledge, skills, practice and talent. One field I intend to major in is entrepreneurship. An entrepreneur is a person with courage and confidence to face business challenges with wit and intelligence hence making his business succeed in a competitive market. An entrepreneur can identify a deficiency in supply of a certain commodity and service and take the opportunity to create and grow his business. Therefore, entrepreneurship requires decisiveness, quick thinking, creativity, flexibility and intelligence for it to be successful. I prefer to apply participative leadership skills where I integrate my employees in decision-making activities and style where I discover the employees’ strengths and allocate duties according to one’s strong point.
In order to be a successful entrepreneur, one requires the ability to understand the changing market and their ever-changing needs and the competitors. One should also have knowledge of the legal requirements associated with business. Skills that are necessary for an entrepreneur are management skills, the skills to manipulate the available resources to fulfill what is required of the business. The entrepreneur should have good relation skills in order to maintain a good rapport with his business associates, suppliers and customers.
The most vital elements of success in entrepreneurship are confidence, decisiveness, flexibility, intelligence, optimism, perseverance, self-awareness, respect and empathy. As a leader, one should be confident enough to earn the respect and confidence of his or her juniors. A leader should be optimistic and view failure as part of a trial and learning process. A leader should be persistent and firm in his decision making the juniors to listen to his or her ideas and implement them.
I possess leadership skills one being the ability to see a different angle to a situation hence can come up with a unique and appealing brand to the consumer’s needs and taste. I exude confidence and am able to earn respect from those I deal with since I respect them and respect myself as well. My weakness is my impatience. I tend to be very goal oriented and the lack of instant success frustrates me. I tend to be a competitive person and a good team player at that. I take advice and opinions from others but I make the final decision. This is a positive aspect in leadership in entrepreneurship as one has control of his or her company.
I have good relation skills and can create good rapports with people as I try to understand people’s expectations and figure out the best way to deal with them. I am outgoing but also prefer working on my own as I feel that goals are achieved faster when I work by myself. However, I need to gain experience in entrepreneurship in order to know how to apply my skills and knowledge in real life situations. In order to achieve my leadership position and own my business I need to work on my decision making ability and my courage to sharpen them to be able to face the hardships experienced in the real business field. I also need to sharpen my communication skills to be able to listen more to people’s advice especially in the early stages of the business as team work is more effective for the overall goal achievement than working as compared to working on your own.
Chapter 17 Leadership TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS WHO ARE LEADERS AND WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? 1. Managers and leaders are the same. (False; easy; p. 488) 2. Ideally, all managers should be leaders. (True; easy; p. 488) EARLY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 3. Despite the best efforts of researchers, it proved impossible to identify one set of traits that would always differentiate leaders from nonleaders. (True; moderate; p. 489) 4. Effective leaders do not need a high degree of knowledge about the company, industry, and technical matters. (False; easy; p. 89) 5. Cognitive theories are leadership theories that identified behaviors that differentiated effective leaders from ineffective leaders. (False; easy; p. 490) 6. According to the University of Michigan studies, leaders who are production oriented are described as emphasizing interpersonal relationships and as taking a personal interest in the needs of their followers. (False; easy; p. 492) 7. The managerial grid only provides a framework for conceptualizing leadership style. (True; moderate; p. 493) CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 8.
Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership style proposed that effectiveness depends on the ability and willingness of the subordinates. (False; moderate; p. 493) 9. The least-preferred coworker questionnaire measures whether a person is task or relationship oriented. (True; easy; p. 493) 10. According to Fiedler’s research, task-oriented leaders tended to perform better in situations that are very favorable to them and in situations that were very unfavorable. (True; difficult; p. 495) 11. According to Fiedler’s research, relationship-oriented leaders seemed to perform better in very unfavorable situations. (False; moderate; p. 95) 12. Vroom and Yetton’s leader participation model related leadership behavior and participation to decision making. (True; moderate; p. 497) 13. Robert House’s path-goal theory is an expectancy theory of motivation. (False; moderate; p. 498) 14. Robert House’s achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level. (True; easy; p. 499) 15. Robert House assumed that leadership style changes depending on the situation. (True; moderate; p. 499) 16. Path-goal theory holds that subordinates with an external locus of control will be more satisfied with a directive style. True; moderate; p. 500) CONTEMPORARY VIEWS ON LEADERSHIP 17. Transactional and transformational leadership are opposing approaches to getting things done. (False; moderate; p. 500) 18. Charisma is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for any organization or organizational unit that grows out of and improves on the present. (False; moderate; p. 501) 19. A charismatic leader is likely seen as being self-confident and influential. (True; easy; p. 501) 20. People working for charismatic leaders are motivated to exert extra work effort but express lower satisfaction. False; moderate; p. 501) 21. Charismatic leadership may not always be needed to achieve high levels of employee performance. (True; easy; p. 501) 22. The key properties of a vision seem to be inspirational possibilities that are value centered, are realizable, have superior imagery, and are well articulated. (True; difficult; p. 502) 23. One specific role of team leadership is that team leaders are troubleshooters. (True; easy; p. 503) 24. When team leaders assume the role of troubleshooter, they clarify expectations and roles, teach, and offer support. (False; moderate; p. 503) LEADERSHIP ISSUES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY 5. Legitimate power and authority are one in the same. (True; moderate; p. 504) 26. Credibility is the degree to which followers perceive someone as honest, competent, and able to inspire. (True; moderate; p. 506) 27. Trust is the belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader. (True; moderate; pp. 506-507) 28. Of the five dimensions that make up the concept of trust, loyalty seems to be the most critical when someone assesses another’s trustworthiness. (False; moderate; p. 507) 29. Ethical leaders may use their charisma to enhance their power over followers and use that power for self-serving purposes. False; easy; p. 508; AACSB: Ethics) 30. Empowerment involves increasing the decision-making discretion of workers. (True; easy; p. 509) MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS For each of the following choose the answer that most completely answers the question. WHO ARE LEADERS AND WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? 31. Persons who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority are termed ______________. a. managers b. leaders c. organizers d. visionaries (b; easy; p. 488) 32. Leadership is __________________. a. the process of influencing a group toward the achievement of goals b. group that achieves goals c. the function of influencing a group towards the achievement of goals d. directing a group towards the achievement of goals (a; difficult; p. 488) EARLY LEADERSHIP THEORIES 33. Leadership _____________. a. has a requirement of at least five members to be led b. is based on management direction c. research has shown that it cannot be developed d. has only been studied since the early twentieth century (d; moderate; p. 488) 34. Early leadership trait research sought _______________. a. to clarify the need for leadership traits b. and found the traits status of leaders . identification of traits that leaders could use d. characteristics that might differentiate leaders from nonleaders (d; difficult; p. 488) 35. Trait theory ignores __________. a. the interactions of leaders b. the characteristics of the group members c. the interactions of leaders and their group members as well as situational factors d. situational factors in the leadership research (c; moderate; p. 489) 36. The University of Iowa studies discussed all of the following leadership styles except ________________. a. laissez-faire b. democratic c. accommodating d. utocratic (c; moderate; p. 490) 37. Which of the following describes the leadership style in which a leader tends to centralize authority, dictate work methods, make unilateral decisions, and limit employee participation? a. cultural style b. autocratic style c. democratic style d. laissez-faire style (b; moderate; p. 490) 38. The _______________ style of leadership describes a leader who tends to involve employees in decision making, delegate authority, encourage participation in deciding work methods and goals, and use feedback as an opportunity for coaching employees. . cultural b. autocratic c. democratic d. laissez-faire (c; moderate; p. 490) 39. Which of the following describes the leadership style in which the leader generally gives the group complete freedom to make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it sees fit? a. cultural style b. autocratic style c. democratic style d. laissez-faire style (d; moderate; p. 490) 40. In the University of Iowa behavioral studies, group members’ satisfaction levels were generally __________. a. higher under an autocratic leader in the long run b. mproved when the leader was considerate of the outcomes c. maintained when the leader was autocratic on the short run d. higher under a democratic leader than under an autocratic one (d; difficult; p. 491) 41. According to the Ohio State studies, which of the following dimensions of leader behavior refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and the roles of group members in the search for goal attainment? a. intelligence structure b. psychological structure c. initiating structure d. consideration structure (c; easy; p. 491) 42.
According to the Ohio State studies, the dimension of leader behavior that is defined as the extent to which a leader had job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings is called ______________. a. initiation b. consideration c. cultural d. physical (b; moderate; p. 491) 43. A high-high leader achieved _______________. a. high group task performance and satisfaction more frequently than one who rated low on either dimension or both b. low group task performance and satisfaction more frequently than one who rated low on either dimension or both c. igh group task performance and satisfaction more frequently than one who rated low on either dimension or both on the short run d. moderator group task performance and satisfaction more frequently than one who rated low on either dimension or both on the long run (a; moderate; p. 491) 44. The Ohio State and the University of Michigan studies were _________________. a. about the same time, but had different research objectives b. at different times, but had similar research objectives c. at different times, but had similar research findings d. about the same time and had similar research objectives d; moderate; p. 492) 45. The managerial grid uses __________. a. a two-dimensional grid for appraising leadership styles b. two behavioral dimensions of leadership style c. a two-dimensional grid for determining leadership styles d. a two-dimensional grid for assessing the dimensions of leadership styles (d; difficult; p. 492) 46. Research on leadership made it increasingly clear that predicting leadership success involved _________________. a. proper analysis of leader consideration for people and concern for production b. hiring managers that could demonstrate and develop trust with workers c. omething more complex than isolating a few leader traits or preferable behaviors d. was more complex than a few leadership styles (c; difficult; p. 493) CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 47. The Fiedler model was based on the premise that a certain leadership style would be _________________. a. effective depending on the followers b. more effective than concern for production c. less effective than the behavioral styles models d. most effective in different types of situations (d; moderate; p. 493) 48. Fiedler’s least-preferred coworker questionnaire seeks to measure what leadership factor? a. ubordinate needs b. leader’s style c. situation d. subordinate coworker influence (b; moderate; p. 493) 49. Fiedler assumed a person’s leadership style was _______________. a. contingent b. relative c. dimensional d. fixed (d; difficult; p. 494) 50. Research by Fiedler uncovered three contingency dimensions that define the key __________. a. situational factors for determining leader effectiveness b. follower factors for determining leader effectiveness c. leader behavioral style factors for determining leader effectiveness d. situational factors for determining follower effectiveness (a; difficult; p. 94) 51. Fiedler’s dimension termed ______________ is the degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates had for their leader. a. leader-member relations b. power relationship c. task structure d. authority (a; easy; p. 494) 52. Which of the following are two of the three key situational factors Fiedler felt were important in determining leader effectiveness? a. leader-member relations and maturity of followers b. organizational success and position power c. task structure and leader-member relations d. maturity of organization and subordinates (c; moderate; p. 494) 53.
The degree to which the job assignments are formalized and procedurized is the ______________ contingency dimension according to Fiedler. a. position power b. subordinate maturity c. task structure d. centralization (c; moderate; p. 494) 54. Fiedler’s term ______________ refers to the degree of influence a leader has over power-based activities. a. leader-member relations b. position power c. responsibility d. task structure (b; moderate; p. 494) 55. Reviews of the major studies undertaken to test the overall validity of Fiedler’s model have shown __________________. a. considerable evidence to refute the model b. inor evidence to support the model c. minor evidence to refute the model d. considerable evidence to support the model (d; easy; p. 495) 56. The ______________ theory is a contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. a. consideration leadership b. situational leadership c. passive leadership d. active leadership (b; moderate; p. 496) 57. Which of the following leadership styles describes a leader who provides both directive and supportive behavior? a. telling b. selling c. participating d. delegating (b; moderate; p. 496) 58. The main role of the leader is to facilitate and communicate in which of the following leadership styles? . telling b. selling c. participating d. delegating (c; moderate; p. 496; AACSB: Communication) 59. Which of the following leadership styles describes a leader who provides little direction or support? a. telling b. selling c. participating d. delegating (d; moderate; p. 496) 60. What leadership model is associated with Vroom and Yetton? a. contingency leadership theory b. situational leadership theory c. path-goal model d. leader participation model (d; easy; p. 497) 61. Vroom and Yetton’s model argues that leader behavior must __________. a. reflect the needs of the followers . develop to the appropriate leadership style c. adjust to reflect the task structure d. depend on the situational variables involved (c; moderate; p. 497) 62. Who developed path-goal theory? a. Fiedler b. Blake and Mouton c. Lewin d. House (d; moderate; p. 498) 63. According to path-goal theory, a leader who lets subordinates know what’s expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks is termed _______________. a. directive b. achievement oriented c. participative d. supportive (a; moderate; p. 499) 64.
According to path-goal theory, a leader who is friendly and shows concern for the needs of subordinates is termed _______________. a. directive b. achievement oriented c. participative d. supportive (d; moderate; p. 499) 65. According to path-goal theory, a manager who consults with subordinates and uses their suggestions exhibits what type of leadership behavior? a. directive b. achievement oriented c. participative d. supportive (c; moderate; p. 499) 66. A leader who sets challenging goals and expects very high performance levels from subordinates is classified as what type of leader, according to path-goal theory? . supportive b. participative c. achievement oriented d. democratic (c; moderate; p. 499) 67. Path-goal theory identifies two classes of situation variables that moderate the leadership-behavior outcome as _________________. a. tact and relationship b. path and goal c. people and history d. environment and followers (d; moderate; p. 499) 68. Which of the following is included in the class of contingency variables termed “environment”? a. task structure and formal authority system b. locus of control and experience c. perceived ability d. employee satisfaction (a; difficult; p. 99) 69. Which of the following is included in the class of contingency variables termed “follower”? a. locus of control b. performance c. employee satisfaction d. formal authority system (a; difficult; p. 499) 70. Which of the following is not one of the hypotheses that have evolved from the path-goal theory? a. Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction when subordinates are performing structured tasks. b. Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant among subordinates with high perceived ability or with considerable experience. c.
The clearer and more bureaucratic the formal authority relationships, the more leaders should exhibit supportive behavior and deemphasize directive behavior. d. Subordinates with an external locus of control will be less satisfied with a directive style. (d; difficult; pp. 499-500) 71. According to the path-goal theory, directive leadership will lead to higher employee satisfaction when there is ______________ within a work group. a. cohesiveness b. high structure c. substantial conflict d. internal locus of control (c; moderate; p. 500) 72. Research on path-goal theory could be summarized as ________________. . very unsupportive b. somewhat supportive c. supportive d. inconclusive (c; easy; p. 500) CONTEMPORARY VIEWS ON LEADERSHIP 73. Transactional leaders are leaders who guide _________________. a. and direct groups towards their goals and tasks b. and clarify the followers’ goals and task requirements c. or clarify the group’s goals and roles d. or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements (d; difficult; p. 500) 74. Which of the following is an accurate statement about transformational leaders? a. They are poor motivators. . They clarify task requirements. c. They exhibit more than just charisma. d. They focus on tasks and pay little attention to followers. (c; difficult; p. 500) 75. Which type of leaders attempts to instill in followers the ability to question not only established views but those views held by the leader? a. transactional b. charismatic c. trait d. transformational (d; moderate; p. 500) 76. A leader, such as Bill Gates of Microsoft, who can inspire followers above their own self-interests and can have a profound effect on their performance, is known as a(n) _____________. . transactional leader b. directive leader c. informational leader d. transformational leader (d; difficult; p. 500) 77. The evidence supporting the superiority of transformational leadership over the transactional variety is ______________. a. inconclusive b. moderately supportive c. moderately negative d. overwhelmingly impressive (d; moderate; p. 500) 78. Evidence indicates that transformational leadership is strongly correlated with _______________. a. lower turnover rates and lower levels of goal attainment and follower well-being b. ower turnover rates and higher levels of productivity and creativity c. higher turnover rates and lower levels of productivity and employee satisfaction d. higher turnover rates and higher levels of employee satisfaction and follower well-being (b; moderate; p. 501) 79. What did the most comprehensive analysis identify as a characteristic that differentiates charismatic leaders from noncharismatic ones? a. They are sensitive only to follower needs. b. They are willing to take risks to achieve a vision. c. They exhibit ordinary behaviors. d. They have a mission. (b; moderate; p. 501) 80.
Researchers who train individuals to use charismatic nonverbal behaviors do not recommend _______________. a. leaning toward the subordinate b. avoiding eye contact c. having relaxed posture d. having animated facial expressions (b; easy; p. 501) 81. ______________ leadership is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future for an organization or organizational unit that grows out of and improves on the future. a. Visionary b. Charismatic c. Trait d. Transactional (a; easy; p. 502) 82. Which of the following is not one of the qualities that are related to ffectiveness in the roles of visionary leaders? a. the ability to explain the vision to others b. the ability to express the vision not just verbally but through behavior c. the ability to extend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts d. the ability to stimulate and inspire followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes (d; moderate; p. 502) 83. Which of the following is not an important leadership role for team leaders? a. liaison with external constituencies b. liaison with internal constituencies c. troubleshooter d. conflict manager (b; moderate; p. 503) 84.
When a team leader secures needed resources, clarifies others’ expectations of the team, gathers information from the outside, and shares that information with team members, the team leader is a _______________. a. liaison with external constituencies b. coach c. conflict manager d. troubleshooter (a; easy; p. 503) 85. Team leaders are acting as conflict managers when they _______________. a. represent the team to other constituencies b. ask penetrating questions of the team c. help identify the resolution options available d. offer support for team members (c; easy; p. 503) LEADERSHIP ISSUES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY 6. All of the following are sources of leader power except ______________. a. legitimate b. status c. expert d. coercive (b; easy; p. 504) 87. Which of the following is the type of power a person has because of his or her position in the formal organizational hierarchy? a. legitimate power b. coercive power c. reward power d. expert power (a; moderate; p. 504) 88. ______________ is the power that rests on the leader’s ability to punish or control. a. Reward power b. Coercive power c. Expert power d. Referent power (b; moderate; p. 504) 89. ______________ is the power to give positive benefit or rewards. . Reward power b. Coercive power c. Expert power d. Referent power (a; moderate; p. 504) 90. Your firm’s attorney has ______________ power when giving legal advice. a. legitimate b. status c. expert d. coercive (c; moderate; p. 504) 91. __________ is the power that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or personal traits. a. Expert power b. Referent power c. Reward power d. Legitimate power (b; moderate; p. 504) 92. When a young child emulates a professional sports star’s behavior, the star has what kind of power over the child? a. legitimate b. expert c. coercive d. referent d; difficult; p. 504) 93. The most dominant component of credibility is ______________. a. expertise b. status c. authority d. honesty (d; moderate; p. 506) 94. The dimension of trust that is used to describe honesty and truthfulness is _______________. a. integrity b. competence c. consistency d. loyalty (a; easy; p. 507) 95. The dimension of trust that is used to describe reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations is termed ______________. a. integrity b. competence c. consistency d. loyalty (c; moderate; p. 507) 96. How are ethics a part of leadership? a.
Transactional leaders have been described as fostering moral virtue when they try to change the attitudes and behaviors of followers. b. Unethical leaders may use their charisma in more socially constructive ways to serve others. c. Ethics are used when leaders give themselves large salaries while they lay off employees. d. Trust explicitly deals with the leadership traits of honesty and integrity. (d; moderate; p. 508; AACSB: Ethics) 97. Providing moral leadership involves addressing the _______________. a. means that a leader uses in trying to achieve goals as well as the content of those goals b. nds of achieving goals c. leadership style used d. gender issues (a; difficult; p. 508; AACSB: Ethics) 98. Why are more and more companies empowering employees? a. Management needs to make quick decisions. b. Organizational upsizing left many managers with smaller spans of control. c. Empowerment is appropriate for all circumstances. d. Managers must cope with increased work demands. (d; moderate; p. 510) 99. One general conclusion that surfaces from leadership research is that _______________. a. effective leaders do not use any single style b. leaders always make good team leaders c. ational culture is a situational variable in determining which leadership style will be most effective d. women are better leaders than men (a; moderate; p. 510) 100. __________________ are expected to be humble and speak frequently. a. Arab leaders b. German leaders c. Japanese leaders d. Korean leaders (c; moderate; p. 510; AACSB: Globalizations) 101. __________________ are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation. a. Arab leaders b. German leaders c. Malaysian leaders d. Scandinavian and Dutch leaders (b; moderate; p. 10; AACSB: Globalizations) 102. Which of the following is an accurate statement about the differences between gender and leadership style? a. Males and females do not use different styles. b. Men are more democratic than women. c. Women encourage more participation. d. Men share power more than women. (c; moderate; p. 511; AACSB: Diversity) 103. __________ to motivate others by transforming their self-interest into organizational goals. a. Women tend to use transformational leadership b. Women tend to use transactional leadership c. Men tend to use transactional leadership d. Men tend to use transformational leadership a; moderate; p. 511; AACSB: Diversity) 104. Men tend to use _____________ leadership, handing out rewards for good work and punishment for bad. a. transactional b. transformational c. situational d. initiating (a; moderate; p. 511; AACSB: Diversity) SCENARIOS AND QUESTIONS For each of the following choose the answer that most completely answers the question. EARLY LEADERSHIP THEORIES A Leadership Junkie (Scenario) Carrie is a leadership “junkie. ” She has read all of the latest popular management texts on leadership and strongly feels that it has improved her ability to manage and perform her job. 105.
At home, Carrie was fixing dinner and thinking about the new CEO her firm had hired. In her speech the previous day, the new CEO had discussed her experience in the industry and her education. Carrie thought that the new CEO would do a great job given these characteristics, coupled with how well-spoken she was and the fact that she just looked like a CEO. Laughing, Carrie realized that she had been judging the new CEO in a manner consistent with the ___________ theories of leadership that were popular in the 1920s and 1930s. a. trait b. behavioral c. contingency d. situational (a; easy; p. 488) Mediation (Scenario)
Carlos, the team leader, will be mediating a dispute between three team members who are bickering about overtime assignments. He recently learned about the technique of letting the parties involved in the dispute come up with the solution. 106. In working with his employees, Carlos tries to ensure that they are involved in decision making and he encourages them to participate in deciding their work methods and goals. Carlos’s leadership style can best be described as ______________. a. autocratic b. laissez-faire c. democratic d. despotic (c; moderate; p. 490) CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Jack and Jill (Scenario)
Jack Jones and Jill Smith are both managers at a medium-sized medical supply firm. Jack emphasizes to his people that the work must be done, regardless of circumstances, and encourages his employees to meet their sales quotas. He is generally liked, but because sales are unstructured, sometimes his employees resent his rather heavy-handed approach. Jill has tried hard to build a good rapport with her employees and knows each of their families. She encourages her employees to work hard, but to be certain to take time for themselves and their families. 107. Fiedler’s contingency model would classify Jack as ______________ oriented. . employee b. organization c. task d. relationship (c; easy; p. 494) 108. Fiedler’s contingency model would classify Jill as ______________ oriented. a. employee b. organization c. task d. relationship (d; easy; p. 494) 109. Which of the following would be assumed by Fiedler’s contingency model about the leadership styles of Jack and Jill? a. The leadership styles can be adjusted to fit the situation. b. The leadership styles are fixed, regardless of the situation. c. The leadership styles can be changed with appropriate training. d. Jack’s style is well suited for unstructured tasks. (b; moderate; p. 94) 110. Fiedler would expect that the best leadership style was a function of _______________. a. leader-member relations, task structure, and position power b. formal authority, production process, and personality of employees c. chain of command, relationships, and power d. type of organization, personality of leader, and education of employees (a; moderate; p. 494) The Path to Leadership (Scenario) Brooke is a manager of the nightshift in a nursing home. She has been reading literature on House’s path-goal theory and would like to apply that information to becoming a better leader. 111.
Brooke should understand that the path-goal theory is a(n) ______________ model of leadership that extracts key elements from the expectancy theory of motivation. a. fixed b. alternative c. contingency d. untested (c; moderate; p. 498) 112. Brooke generally lets subordinates know what’s expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. She would be termed a(n) ______________ leader. a. achievement-oriented b. participative c. supportive d. directive (d; moderate; p. 499) 113. Brooke would like to become a participative leader. She should ________________. a. et subordinates know what’s expected of them, schedule work to be done, and give specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks b. be friendly and show concern for the needs of subordinates c. consult with subordinates and use their suggestions before making a decision d. set challenging goals and expect subordinates to perform at their highest level (c; moderate; p. 499) 114. Lately Brooke has been setting challenging goals and expecting subordinates to perform at their highest level. She is acting as a(n) ______________ leader. a. achievement-oriented b. participative c. supportive d. directive (a; moderate; p. 499) 15. Brooke has decided that the appropriate leadership style would be to show friendliness and concern for the needs of her subordinates. She wishes to be a(n) ______________ leader. a. achievement-oriented b. participative c. supportive b. directive (c; moderate; p. 499) The Proactive Supervisor (Scenario) Roberta has been a departmental supervisor and feels that in order to be a leader to the employees she supervises, she has to many times utilize a different type of leader behavior. Recently, she met with the employees to let them know what she expected of them and the schedules they had for the products to be shipped.
She also gave some specific assignments to individuals and the tasks she expected to be completed. Roberta really enjoys the time that she sometimes gets to spend with the employees so they can see that she is friendly and has concern for the employees. She also likes to consult with the employees for suggestions prior to making a decision. Prior to the start of a new fiscal year, Roberta always meets with the employees to establish challenging goals and expectations for the followers to perform at their highest level. 116.
When she recently met with the employees to let them know both what she expected of them and also the product schedules and assignments, she was performing which of the following leadership styles? a. directive leader b. supportive leader c. participative leader d. achievement-oriented leader (a; moderate; p. 499) 117. When Roberta gets to spend time with the employees so they can see that she is friendly and has concern for the employees, she is performing which of the following leadership styles? a. directive leader b. supportive leader c. participative leader d. achievement-oriented leader b; moderate; p. 499) 118. When Roberta consults with the employees for suggestions prior to making a decision, she is performing which of the following leadership styles? a. directive leader b. supportive leader c. participative leader d. achievement-oriented leader (c; moderate; p. 499) 119. When Roberta meets with the employees to establish challenging goals and expectations for the followers to perform at their highest level, she is performing which of the following leadership styles? a. directive leader b. supportive leader c. participative leader d. achievement-oriented leader (d; moderate; p. 499)
CONTEMPORARY VIEWS ON LEADERSHIP A Leadership Junkie (Scenario 2) Carrie is a leadership “junkie. ” She has read all of the latest popular management texts on leadership and strongly feels that it has improved her ability to manage and perform her job. She is always eager to share her knowledge with her peers, especially emerging issues in leadership and the differences between the ways men and women lead. 120. Carrie stopped Sondra in the lunchroom and just had to tell her about ______________, where followers make claims about heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. . charismatic leadership b. transactional leadership c. transformational leadership d. situational leadership (c; moderate; p. 500) 121. Carrie stopped Perry in the parking lot and just had to tell him about ______________, where leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. a. situational leadership b. transactional leadership c. transformational leadership d. attributional leadership (b; difficult; p. 500) 122. Carrie stopped Steve in the parking lot and just had to tell him about _____________, where leaders provide individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, and possess charisma. a. charismatic leadership b. transactional leadership c. transformational leadership d. attributional leadership (c; difficult; p. 500) 123. Carrie stopped Harry in the hall and just had to tell him about ______________, that is, leadership characterized by enthusiasm, self-confidence, and the ability to influence people to behave in certain ways. a. charismatic leadership b. transactional leadership c. situational leadership d. attributional leadership (a; moderate; p. 501)
The Team Leader (Scenario) Carlos has been a team leader for 3 years. As a team leader, he spends a considerable amount of his time performing, as he sees it, about four to five types of functions in support of his team members. This morning he spent 2 hours in budget hearings and another hour meeting with a vendor of an important component and engineering. His team had discovered the problem yesterday and knows it’s a critical aspect to the product. On a typical day scenario, he will spend about 30 percent of his day contending with influences from groups both inside and outside the company.
This afternoon he is scheduled to meet with the team for 2 hours to consider the vendor’s solution offered this morning at the meeting with engineering. Later in the afternoon, he will be mediating a dispute between three team members who are bickering about overtime assignments. The rest of the time, Carlos visits employees at their work area as he walks to or from a meeting, or when he goes out to the floor to “chat” about the day or a change order in tomorrow’s shop schedule. 124. While attending the budget meeting and the vendor meeting with engineering this morning, he was performing which of the following roles? . conflict manager b. liaison with external constituencies c. coach d. troubleshooter (b; moderate; p. 503) 125. This afternoon when he meets with the team for 2 hours to consider the vendor’s solution to the problem they discovered yesterday, he will be performing which of the following roles? a. conflict manager b. liaison with external constituencies c. coach d. troubleshooter (d; moderate; p. 503) 126. Once he arrives at the meeting to mediate the employees’ dispute, he will be performing which of the following roles? a. conflict manager b. liaison with external constituencies c. oach d. troubleshooter (a; moderate; pp. 503-504) 127. When Carlos is visiting with employees in “chats,” he is performing which of the following roles? a. conflict manager b. liaison with external constituencies c. coach d. troubleshooter (c; moderate; p. 504) LEADERSHIP ISSUES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Crazy Powermakers, Inc. (Scenario) Crazy Powermakers, Inc. , was a unique company in that its philosophy was to prevent any one person from having too much power in the company. Therefore, any power found to exist in the company was distributed to someone who did not have any power yet.
As a result, Tamera was the person employees went to when disciplinary action had to be taken; Kayse was the supervisor that the employees went to for general decisions that needed to be made; Clay was the person employees went to when they were to receive special recognition; Juan was the person employees went to when knowledge of a topic was needed; and Franklin was the person employees went to when they needed resources or sought his charisma. 128. Tamera held ___________ power. a. legitimate b. coercive c. reward d. expert (b; easy; p. 504) 129. Kayse held ______________ power. . reward b. expert c. legitimate d. coercive (c; easy; p. 504) 130. Clay held ___________ power. a. reward b. legitimate c. coercive d. referent (a; easy; p. 504) 131. Juan held ______________ power. a. legitimate b. reward c. referent d. expert (d; easy; p. 504) 132. Franklin held _______________ power. a. legitimate b. referent c. reward d. expert (b; easy; p. 504) A Leadership Junkie (Scenario) Carrie is a leadership “junkie. ” She has read all of the latest popular management texts on leadership and strongly feels that it has improved her ability to manage and perform her job.
She is always eager to share her knowledge with her peers, especially emerging issues in leadership and the differences between the ways men and women lead. 133. Carrie had to tell Sharon about the findings concerning women and leadership. Sharon was interested in the fact that all but which of the following is true concerning women and leadership? a. There are differences between how men and women lead. b. Women utilize a democratic style more than men. c. Women tend to share power less than men. d. Women are less likely than men to use a directive style. (c; moderate; p. 511; AACSB: Diversity) ESSAY QUESTIONS EARLY LEADERSHIP THEORIES 34. In a short essay, identify seven traits associated with leadership. Answer a. Drive—leaders exhibit a high effort level. They have a relatively high desire for achievement; they are ambitious; they have a lot of energy; they are tirelessly persistent in their activities; and they show initiative. b. Desire to lead—leaders have a strong desire to influence and lead others. They demonstrate the willingness to take responsibility. c. Honesty and integrity—leaders build trusting relationships between themselves and followers by being truthful or nondeceitful and by showing high consistency between word and deed. . Self-confidence—followers look to leaders for an absence of self-doubt. Leaders, therefore, need to show self-confidence in order to convince followers of the rightness of their goals and decisions. e. Intelligence—leaders need to be intelligent enough to gather, synthesize, and interpret large amounts of information, and they need to be able to create visions, solve problems, and make correct decisions. f. Job-relevant knowledge—effective leaders have a high degree of knowledge about the company, industry, and technical matters.
In-depth knowledge allows leaders to make well-informed decisions and to understand the implications of those decisions. g. Extraversion—leaders are energetic, lively people. They are sociable, assertive, and rarely silent or withdrawn. (moderate; p. 489) 135. In a short essay, contrast the behavioral theories of leadership. a. The University of Iowa studies (conducted by Kurt Lewin and his associates) explored three leadership styles. The autocratic style described a leader who typically tended to centralize authority, dictate work methods, make unilateral decisions, and limit employee participation.
The democratic style described a leader who tended to involve employees in decision making, delegate authority, encourage participation in deciding work methods and goals, and use feedback as an opportunity for coaching employees. Finally, the laissez-faire style leader generally gave the group complete freedom to make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it saw fit. Lewin and his associates researched which style was the most effective. Their results seemed to indicate that the democratic style contributed to both good quantity and quality of work. b. The Ohio State studies identified two important dimensions of leader behavior.
The first was called initiating structure, which referred to the extent to which a leader defined and structured his or her role and the roles of group members in the search for goal attainment. It included behavior that involved attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals. The second dimension was called consideration, which was defined as the extent to which a leader had job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings. A leader who was high in consideration helped group members with personal problems, was friendly and approachable, and treated all group members as equals.
He or she showed concern for (was considerate of) his or her followers’ comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction. c. Leadership studies conducted at the University of Michigan’s Survey Research Center at about the same time as those being done at Ohio State had a similar research objective: Identify behavioral characteristics of leaders that were related to performance effectiveness. The Michigan group also came up with two dimensions of leadership behavior, which they labeled employee oriented and production oriented.
Leaders who were employee oriented were described as emphasizing interpersonal relationships; they took a personal interest in the needs of their followers and accepted individual differences among group members. The production-oriented leaders, in contrast, tended to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job, were concerned mainly with accomplishing their group’s tasks, and regarded group members as a means to that end. The conclusions of the Michigan researchers strongly favored leaders who were employee oriented as they were associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction. d.
The behavioral dimensions from these early leadership studies provided the basis for the development of a two-dimensional grid for appraising leadership styles. This managerial grid used the behavioral dimensions “concern for people” and “concern for production” and evaluated a leader’s use of these behaviors, ranking them on a scale from 1 (low) to 9 (high). Although the grid had 81 potential categories into which a leader’s behavioral style might fall, emphasis was placed on five styles: impoverished management (1,1), task management (9,1), middle-of-the-road management (5,5), country club management (1,9), and team management (9,9).
Of these five styles, the researchers concluded that managers performed best when using a 9,9 style. Unfortunately, the grid offered no answers to the question of what made a manager an effective leader; it only provided a framework for conceptualizing leadership style. In fact, there’s been little substantive evidence to support the conclusion that a 9,9 style is most effective in all situations. (difficult; pp. 490-493) CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 136. In a short essay, discuss the situational leadership theory as developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard.
Next, list and discuss the four specific leadership styles and the four stages of follower readiness as defined by Hersey and Blanchard. Answer The situational leadership theory is a contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. Hersey and Blanchard argue that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness. The emphasis on the followers in leadership effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leader. Regardless of what the leader does, effectiveness depends on the actions of his or her followers.
And, readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. The four specific leadership styles are as follows: a. Telling (high task–low relationship)—the leader defines roles and tells people what, how, when, and where to do various tasks. b. Selling (high task–high relationship)—the leader provides both directive and supportive behavior. c. Participating (low task–high relationship)—the leader and follower share in decision making; the main role of the leader is facilitating and communicating. . Delegating (low task–low relationship)—the leader provides little direction or support. The final component in the model is the four stages of follower readiness: a. R1—People are both unable and unwilling to take responsibility for doing something. They’re neither competent nor confident. b. R2—People are unable but willing to do the necessary job tasks. They’re motivated but currently lack the appropriate skills. c. R3—People are able but unwilling to do what the leader wants. d. R4—People are both able and willing to do what is asked of them. difficult; p. 496) 137. In a short essay, discuss the path-goal leadership theory developed by Robert House. Next, list and explain the four leadership behaviors based on the path-goal leadership theory. Answer Developed by Robert House, path-goal theory is a contingency model of leadership that takes key elements from the expectancy theory of motivation. According to this theory, a leader’s behavior is acceptable to group members to the degree that they view it as an immediate source of satisfaction or as a means of future satisfaction.
A leader’s behavior is motivational to the extent that it makes the satisfaction of subordinates’ needs contingent on effective performance and provides the coaching, guidance, support, and rewards that are necessary for effective performance. To test these statements, House identified four leadership behaviors: a. Directive leader—lets subordinates know what’s expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance on how to accomplish tasks. b. Supportive leader—friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers. c.
Participative leader—consults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision. d. Achievement-oriented leader—sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level. (moderate; pp. 498-499) CONTEMPORARY VIEWS ON LEADERSHIP 138. In a short essay, differentiate between transactional and transformational leaders. Answer Transactional leaders are those who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transformational leaders, however, pay attention to the concerns and developmental needs of individual followers.
They change followers’ awareness of issues by helping those followers look at old problems in new ways. They are able to excite, arouse, and inspire followers to put out extra effort to achieve group goals. Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership. Transformational leadership produces levels of employee effort and performance that go beyond what would occur in a transactional approach alone. (easy; pp. 500-501) 139. A team leader’s job is to focus on two priorities: (1) managing the team’s external boundary and (2) facilitating the team process.
In a short essay, identify the four specific leadership roles that these priorities entail. Answer First, team leaders are liaisons with external constituencies. These may include upper management, other organizational work teams, customers, or suppliers. The leader represents the team to other constituencies, secures needed resources, clarifies others’ expectations of the team, gathers information from the outside, and shares that information with team members. Next, team leaders are troubleshooters. When the team has problems and asks for assistance, team leaders sit in on meetings and try to help resolve the problems.
Troubleshooting rarely involves technical or operational issues because the team members typically know more about the tasks being done than does the team leader. The leader is most likely to contribute by asking penetrating questions, helping the team talk through problems, and getting needed resources to tackle problems. Third, team leaders are conflict managers. They help identify issues such as the source of the conflict, who’s involved, the issues, the resolution options available, and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
By getting team members to address questions such as these, the leader minimizes the disruptive aspects of intrateam conflicts. Finally, team leaders are coaches. They clarify expectations and roles, teach, offer support, and do whatever else is necessary to help team members keep their work performance high. (moderate; pp. 503-504) LEADERSHIP ISSUES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY 140. In a short essay, list and discuss five sources in which leader power has been identified. Include specific examples of each source of power to support your answer.
Answer a. Legitimate power—represents the power a leader has as a result of his or her position in the organization. People in positions of authority are also likely to have reward or coercive power, but legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward. Because of their legitimate power, when school principals, bank presidents, or army captains ask for something to be done, teachers, tellers, and lieutenants listen and usually comply. b. Coercive power—the power that rests on the leader’s ability to punish or control.
Followers react to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if they did not comply. As a manager, you typically have some coercive power, such as being able to suspend or demote employees or to assign them work they find unpleasant or undesirable. c. Reward power—the power to give positive benefits or rewards. These rewards can be anything that another person values. In an organizational context, that might include money, favorable performance appraisals, promotions, interesting work assignments, friendly colleagues, and preferred work shifts or sales territories. d.
Expert power—influence that’s based on expertise, special skills, or knowledge. As jobs have become more specialized, managers have become increasingly dependent on staff “experts” to achieve the organization’s goals. If an employee has skills, knowledge, or expertise that’s critical to the operation of a work group, that person’s expert power is enhanced. For instance, in many organizations, individuals who have good computer skills and are seen as “experts” when computer problems arise have the ability to influence because of their knowledge and skills—that is, they have expert power. . Referent power—the power that arises because of a person’s desirable resources or personal traits. Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. If you admire someone to the point of modeling your behavior and attitudes after him or her, that person has referent power over you. (moderate; p. 504) 141. In a short essay, describe the results of the studies that focus on gender and leadership style. Answer A number of studies focusing on gender and leadership style have been conducted in recent years.
Their general conclusion is that males and females do use different styles. Specifically, women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style. Women are more likely to encourage participation, share power and information, and attempt to enhance followers’ self-worth. They lead through inclusion and rely on their charisma, expertise, contacts, and interpersonal skills to influence others. Women tend to use transformational leadership, motivating others by transforming their self-interest into organizational goals.
Men are more likely to use a directive, command-and-control style. They rely on formal position authority for their influence. Men use transactional leadership, handing out rewards for good work and punishment for bad. There is an interesting qualifier to these findings. The tendency for female leaders to be more democratic than males declines when women are in male-dominated jobs. Apparently, group norms and male stereotypes influence women and they tend to act more autocratically. (easy; p. 511; AACSB: Diversity)