Harmonization of Geospatial Data
Dry. Hafiz Seekers. 2013 Academic World Education & Research Center. All rights reserved. Abstract Databases of digital spatial data present an integral part of the command and control systems in emergency systems (e. G. , the Integrated Emergency System, the Medical Rescue Service). Data for these databases does not necessarily have to come from a single source. They can be acquired from various spatial databases; they can possess different geometric, topological, or thematic properties that can be transferred into a particular database.
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The resulting database must be harmonicas in such a way that the user would be able to use it as a homogeneous database assessing unambiguously identified geometry, topology, and thematic information. The aim of the paper is to inform about a new project which proposes a general procedure of harmonistic spatial databases for the command and control systems and to create the mathematical models for that procedure.
Keywords: Conformations, geographic data, harmonistic, mathematical modeling; * ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE: Sara Hookahs-Markova, Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Defense, Conjunctiva 65, 66210 Born, Czech Republic, E-mail address: Taleteller, V. , Markova, H. , S. Arabians, M. & Hofmann, A. Harmonistic of Spatial Data, Reproached Information Technology & Computer Science. [Online]. 2013, 3, up 541-546. Available from: http://www. World-education-center. Org/ index. PH/P-lets 1 .
Present Situation in Knowledge of the Spatial Data Harmonistic Problems 1. 1 . Harmonistic of spatial data There are relatively vast territorially localized databases in the Czech Republic used in numerous branches. Basic databases are created by the government administration (the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Caster – CLC. KHZ and the Army of the Czech Republic – CAR) and they are intended for activities associated with the functions of the state (Taleteller, Hookahs, Hofmann, & Achromatic, 2009).
These databases fully cover the territory of the Czech Republic, they are created according to the obligatory rules and they are continually updated. These rules are based on both the original national standards and the international standards, especially the Open Spatial Consortium (COG) recommendation in the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE) framework (in case of the CLC. KHZ and the Ministry of Agriculture) and the Defense Spatial Information Working Group (SWIG) standards (in case of the Ministry of Defense – MOD).
Apart from these basic databases, other databases – especially thematic – are created in the Czech Republic, for example databases of soil types or databases from the fields of geology, forestry, energy, landscape protection, leisure activities, etc. Both the government administration bodies and commercial organizations have responsibility for these databases. Harmonistic is addressed generally in the Czech technical standard CNN ISO 860, however, its real impact on the problems of digital spatial data is errantly not addressed satisfactorily neither on the national nor international levels.
It is possible to use many of the above-mentioned databases as the source base for decision-making processes in the command and control systems of either the rescue service or the armed forces. Source data can be employed not only for a simple orientation in the terrain but also for solving tasks related to particular decisions such as large actions of the emergency service components, military threat to the country, prediction of the landscape changes during extreme weather conditions or industrial accidents and so on.
There are many tasks where the source data are combined with each other and new data are created by applying mathematically defined procedures (Taleteller, Balsa, Racer, Hofmann, & Hookahs-Markova, 2012),. Such systems may employ data coming from various sources. Data sources can form a part of the system or they can be attached to it only for the duration of a particular task. Nevertheless, the data must be harmonize either permanently or temporarily in such a way that a homogeneous database is established for a particular task or a particular solution.
The properties of this database are then fully reflected in solving he supporting tasks serving for the decision-making processes. Those properties affect also the quality and reliability of the decisions. Many organizations are engaged in the process of data harmonistic and data the Multinational Spatial Copulation Program (MAGIC) project (http:// magic. HTML), Forerunner Institute for Computer Graphics (http:// wry. Stimulated. Eh/home. HTML), etc. 1. 2.
Ways of solving harmonistic As the primary causes of the heterogeneity of spatial data the following issues are generally considered: the differences in definition of conceptual models being based n various historical and current standards; the interpretation of conceptual models for a particular territory and a particular situation; use of different coordinate systems and different map projections; applying different techniques for data editing and analysis (Arabians, 2009; Arabians & Vela, 2010). The real harmonistic consists in connecting the conceptual models, I. E. N unifying definitions of objects and phenomena, their coding and unification of their geometric, topological, and thematic properties. For this, it is possible to use data dictionaries of the Thesaurus type. Unification of data 542 thin a homogeneous data environment is the next step in which the basic database is considered as reference and other data sources are being connected to it with respect to the given rules and procedures. The complete system of harmonistic and creation of a homogeneous database can be realized either ad hoc or with the help of prepared formalized tools or programs (Fighting et al. 2011; Ghana & Godchild, 2002). Harmonistic process alters the properties of a final homogeneous database which is necessary to be considered when using this database, especially in decision- making and controlling processes. If the homogeneous database is used for spatial analysis as a base of decision-making processes then the analysis results are considerably influenced by these properties. Therefore, it is necessary to characterize these properties and to take them into account in the command and control process. 2. Project Principles, Goals and Methods 2. 1.
Project principles The fundamental objective of the project is to design a complex system for harmonistic the heterogeneous spatial data obtained from various sources in a way that the homogeneous database is used in the command and control systems. The basic databases provided by state organizations (standard data sources) will be used as the primary sources. The data coming from the international projects such as INSPIRE, MAGIC, or Vamp will be considered as the secondary sources. Only the international data sources expected to form a significant part of input data will be used.
The raw data provided by the remote sensing sensors including imagery acquired using non-metric cameras will be considered as supplementary sources. The connections – geometric, topological, and thematic – between all sources of data mathematical procedures so as to describe them unambiguously and to establish aroma procedures of data harmonistic. Also the inner characteristics of homogeneous data will be studied, especially their spatial and thematic accuracy and certainty, and further, the influence of these inner characteristics on reliability of decision-making if these decisions will be based on spatial analyses. . 2. Project goals The goal of the proposed project is to design a general procedure of harmonistic of spatial databases for command and control systems. The sub goals are the following: Analysis of properties of spatial data coming from existing resources with respect o their semantics, geometry, themes, structure and techniques of its formation. The analysis will cover both the standard products and the products of non-standard methods, such as oblique imagery acquired by remote sensing methods. 2.
Analysis of influence of spatial data properties on the conceptual scheme of a reference database; semantic definition of stored features and phenomena; and their geometric, topological, and thematic properties. 3. Modernization of the above-mentioned influences and creation of mathematical models and their formalization in an appropriate environment so that the database loud be homogeneous for the use in the command and control systems. 4. Application of mathematical models for an assessment of quality of harmonicas and homogeneous database with respect to the typical tasks used in the command and control systems. 43 5. Research of a complex influence of the homogeneous database on solution of analytical spatial tasks in support of command and control, and also on reliability of 6. Verification of the proposed methods and models in dealing with spatial support of crisis management with a focus on cartographic visualization of a crisis situation angel; on optimization of rescue vehicles transportation both on routes and in the terrain; on visualization of evacuation procedures, etc. 2. 3.
Project methods Necessary analysis of non-homogeneity sources in primary data will be performed in the first stage of the project. These will be especially sources operated by state authorities and organizations, and also sources used in accordance with international agreements and cooperation. Analysis of sources that may be obtained from cooperating organizations will follow. Geometric, topological, and semantic non- homogeneity will be examined within the analyses and their causes (e. G. Hysterical principles of data collection, geographic nature of objects and phenomena) will be determined. These effects are usually manifested in a different geometry of the database objects. Other effects will be examined, such as use of other conceptual models, other interpretation of accepted standards, etc. In the next stage, the ways of solving both geometric and semantic non-homogeneity will be sought. These ways will be modeled using mathematical tools, especially mathematical statistics, probability, and fuzzy logic (NovoГ¤k, 2006; Hookahs & Creates, 2010; Food & Atkinson, 2002).
Mathematical modeling will be applied as an important tool in system modeling and simulation; analysis and forecasting of processes, phenomena, behavior and states in order to provide an appropriate working tool for simulation or for creating models of complex spatial systems with the help of fundamental spatial data. It is possible to use fuzzy logic in various real decision-making tasks in which the propositional or predicate logic would be insufficient (Hookahs-Markova, 2012). It allows assignment of membership to the sets having the range from O to 1 (including marginal values).
Therefore it is possible to express the concepts such as “partially’, a little”, “almost”, etc. This expression of a membership to a set which is only partial is often necessary in the domain of spatial data. When dealing with inhomogeneous, it is possible to consider an approach of probability and also a level of membership according to a particular data type (the function of a membership assigns a fuzzy value to vaguely defined sets and therefore it does not represent probability of a phenomenon). A combination of both approaches is possible (Taleteller, Hookahs-Markova, & Hofmann, 2012).
Subsequently, the aggregation function will be defined. It will allow integrating the individual layers of a inhomogeneous database into a final data layer. Data of related objects of the input layers of spatial data will be merged using a mathematical model and a specific value will be assigned to the resulting object using a function of several variables. The number of variables will correspond to the number of merged layers of spatial data (Burroughs & Frank, 1996; Cries, 1993; Demonic & Kill, 2004).
Proposed mathematical models will be verified in pilot studies of selected typical tasks from a command and control domain of the components of the emergency services and armed forces of the Czech Republic. The typical tasks will be selected to characterize such activities of the abovementioned components that are considerably frequent. Project results will be employed as methodical instructions for their implementation within the command and control systems, especially in a domain of emergency services and in the command and control systems of the CAR.
Another field of application of the project results is a domain of data standardization both at the national level and in the frame of the standardization processes of EX. and NATO. Proposed works on the project are aimed at increasing the efficiency of activities elated to the use of non-homogeneous data and information in the command and control systems so that the operational components have not only their proprietary databases but also relevant materials concerning the quality and reliability of data in use.
Based on this information, they will be able to use these materials for their decisions and, alternatively, to correct these decisions appropriately. Works on a project will use methods for collection and collation of information, its analysis, proposal of initial hypothesis and mathematical models, testing of functionality of hypothesis and models using functional samples and functional models and methods. After this testing the particular procedures will be proposed and further verified in simulated environments of the command and control systems.
Among other data, primarily the data provided by the CLC. KHZ and the MOD of the Czech Republic will be used. These data will be considered as reference. Further, data obtained from the international projects such as MAGIC or INSPIRE will be tested as well as data from the field of pedagogy, geology, climatology, forestry, etc. Aerial photographs acquired using both metric and metronomic cameras and satellite imagery will form a significant part of data sources. A special team will be created for the purpose of working on the project.
Its members will come from the Department of military geography and meteorology and the Department of mathematics and physics of the Faculty of military technology of the University of Defense. 4. Characteristics of the Expected Project Results The expected project results will be particular mathematical models for evaluation of accuracy and reliability of spatial data and information, both the original and generated using combination of original data and data derived from analysis and ATA synthesis. Verification of the proposed models in the selected command and control system will represent another result of the project.
After verifying, the models procedures used in their systems. This is the case of the CAR and also the components involved in supporting the emergency services of the Czech Republic. The main goal of this paper was to present to the readers our current project in its initial stage and our future intentions. The authors believe that the project will help to increase the efficiency of activities related to the use of non-homogeneous data ND information in the command and control systems in the Emergency Systems and Military Command and Control Systems.