“Fertility control is the key to the development of less developed countries like those of the Caribbean”. Critically assess the above statement in relation to any two named countries. To begin, firstly fertility or fertility rate must first be understood. Fertility rate is “the actual level of childbearing of an individual or population. ” (Oxford Dictionary of Sociology, pg. 254). Fertility control is seen as a method which “ensures development by limiting the quantity of natural, financial and other resources to be spent on the economically inactive. ” (Sociology for Caribbean Studies, pg. 21). Demographers believe the concept that in each country there is an ‘optimum population’ in which there are sufficient resources in which to sustain the present population. Once the population has surpassed the level of resources available, Malthusian’s view this as overpopulation, not the ideal population for that specific country. This has led demographers to say that by regulating the population, by curbing the population via certain checks, such as positive checks, the system of fertility control can be used to limit the growth of the population.
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This ensures that a majority of a certain countrys opulation does not pass that optimum population level and that the larger portion of the population is of the working age and are those persons who are employed and able to contribute to their society. Thus demographers believe that fertility control will prompt a societal and financial progress within a countrys population allowing development of a country to be attainable.
Also to be understood is what exactly a developing and less developed country is. A developing country is “a poor agricultural country that is seeking to become more advanced economically and socially. (Oxford Dictionaries. com), or “a non-industrialized, poor country that is seeking to develop its resources by industrialization” (freedictionaries. com). A less developed country can be defined as “a fairly poor country without much industrial development” (Macmillandictionary. om) Within the Caribbean less developed countries such as Haiti and Jamaica face problems in regard to fertility control and the fact that their population surpasses the availability of the necessary resources present in their country to the population. Caribbean sociologists do believe in ertility control as an important mechanism in the economic development and social development of the countries within the Caribbean. The less people there are within a country the less money will be needed to spend on the development of that country therefore the objective of greater development of that country will be more quickly and easily attained.
Within the Modernization theory it is believed that the rapid population growth of a country can be a great obstacle for the development of that country and thus containing and controlling a countrys population growth will herefore lead to their economic development as they are able to control their population and therefore the resources of that country are sufficient to sustain that country and aid in the development of that country.
Caribbean sociologists also believe in implementing the practices of developed countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States and China who have family planning policies in order to control tnelr populatlon gr owtn ana reduce tnelr Tertlll ty rates. From tne year 2010 the annual birth rate of Haiti has been increasingly rising. This rise has been eferred to as a fertility crisis’ by international population demographers. By 2050 the population of Haiti is expected to reach 15. million people due to the fact that there is a lack of birth control and the women of Haiti constantly give birth to thousands of children which they are unable to feed, house or take care of sufficiently leading to a whopping almost one hundred per cent illiteracy which is at the root of their poverty. This overpopulation, lack of education and sufficient resources can be seen to have caused the lack of development in Haiti. The government of Haiti has not come up ith an operational family planning program to control growing population numbers.
Thus initiative needs to be taken in regards to their health program in order to decrease their total fertility rate. In Jamaica, their fertility rate has seen a substantial drop as a result of the part played by the countrys family planning agency, the National Family Planning Board (NFPB). The Acting Executive Director of the National Family Planning Board, Dr. Sharlene Jarrett, has said that in Jamaica in the early 1970’s “we averaged 4. 5 children born to women between ages 15 and 49 nd we see where in 2008, it was 2. and this is Just a little above the ideal replacement level. “. This decrease is seen as a great achievement for Jamaica and is a major step in Jamaica developing in their economic and social infrastructure. The decrease in the amount of children born to a Jamaican woman and in total the overall children born within the country is an important stage for their development. With a low fertility rate the countrys resources can be spent more on educating and ensuring the health and housing situations for the countrys people.
Fertility ontrol is an important phase in the development of a country, like those of the Caribbean; however it is widely believed by sociologists, particularly those of the Caribbean, that fertility control within a country is not the only step which will ensure economic and social growth. It is thought that real industrial and economic development is dependent on the availability of human resources and the development of institutions such as those of the recreational institutions, religious branches, health organizations and educational institutions, and until that is chieved within a country it will not be truly and fully industrialized.
There are therefore more important factors in addition to fertility control to aid in a countrys development. Bibliography Mustapha, N. (2009). Socioloy for Caribbean Students. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers. Scott, J. , & Gordon, M. Oxford Dictionary of Sociology. Oxford University Press. Oxforddictionaries. com. (2013). Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Macmillandictionary. com (2009-2013). Macmillan Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Thefreedictionary. com (2013). The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Farlex, Inc.