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Explosives

Explosives TNT C6H2(NO2)3CH3 > 6CO + 2. 5H2 + 1. 5N2 + Definition: A chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature. Types: Low explosives- This includes gun powder, and flares. They are usually a mixture or a combustible substance and an oxidant the decomposes rapidly. This is used as a propellant. Ex// firing a gun. High explosives: This is used in mining, demolition and military warheads. It can be subdivided into three explosive classes: Primary explosives= extremely sensitive to mechanical shock/friction/heat.

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Secondary explosives=Also called base explosives are relatively insensitive to shock/heat/friction. Tertiary explosives: also know as blasting agents. These are not used in the military but are very powerful and are used in mining and excavating. Insensitive to shock, tertiary explosives need a booster to be set off. The inventor of black powder (the first explosive) is unknown, but we do know it was invented in China sometime around the 10th century. Being a messy mechanical explosive it was later replaced with cleaner smokeless powder in 1888 by Albert Nobel.

There are three groups of explosives chemical/mechanical/nuclear. In 1955, modern high explosives were developed. Explosives such as nitrate-fuel oil mixtures or ANFO and ammonium nitrate-base water gels now account for seventy percent of the explosive market. Explosives can contain a number of toxic substances, such as sulfur, perchlorates and nitrates. The proper disposal of hazardous substances such as these is important to prevent contamination of the air, water or soil. The major use of explosives has been in warfare. High explosives have been used in bombs, explosive shells, torpedoes, and missile warheads.

Non detonating explosives (gunpowder and the smokeless powders) have found extensive use as propellants for bullets and artillery shells. The most important peaceful use of detonating explosives is to break rocks in mining. A hole is drilled in the rock and filled with any of a variety of high explosives; the high explosive is then detonated, either electrically or with a special high-explosive cord. Special explosives, called permissible explosives, must be used in coal mines. These explosives produce little or no flame and explode at low temperatures to prevent secondary explosions of mine gases and dust.

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