dox computer tech notes
—Chapter 5— -LOOK OVER- Types of Windows (Ultimate, Enterprise, etc. ) Types of partitions (primary, extended, etc. ) -NEED TO KNOW- RAM CPU Video Adapter Card Motherboard -5. 1. 1. 1 Terms- Multi-user: 2+ users have individual accounts that let them work with programs & peripheral devices at the same time. Multitasking: Computer is capapble of using multiple programs at a time. Multiprocessing: OS can support 2+ CPUs Multithreading: Program can be broken into smaller parts, loaded as needed by the OS.
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Allows different parts of a program to run at once. -5. 1. 1. 2 Basic Functions- Control hardware access OS uses a device driver to interact between apps & hardware Done with a plug-and-play (PnP) process If driver cannot be found, it must be installed manually. Manage files & folders OS creates file structure on HDD to store data Program & data files are grouped together in directory Directories organized for easy find and use Directories can be kept inside (nested) other directories. Called folders and subfolders in Windows.
Provide a user interface OS lets user interact with software & hardware. 2 types of 131: Command-line interface (CLI) – user types commands at a prompt (command prompt rogram) Graphical User Interface (GU’) user interacts with menus and icons (Windows desktop) Manage applications OS locates an application, loads it into RAM. Application = software program OS assigns resources to running apps. Application Programming Interface (API): set of guidelines to ensure a new app is compatible with an OS.
Examples of APIs: Open Graphics Library (OpenGL): Cross-platform standard spec for multimedia graphics DirectX: Collection of APIs related to multimedia tasks for Windows Windows API: Allows apps from older versions of Windows to operate on newer versions. Java APIs: Collection of APIs related to the development of Java programming. -5. 1. 1. 3 Processor Architecture- x86: 32-bit architecture, processes instructions using a 32-bit space. Uses fewer registers than x64, slower than x64. Can only address 4 GB of system memory. x64: Adds additional registers, specifically for 64-bit instructions.
Allows faster processing. Can address up to 128 GB system memory. Also more security features. -5. 1. 2. 1 Desktop Operating Systems- 2 types of OS: Desktop and network Desktop designed for small office, home office (SOHO) environments. Supports a single user Runs single-user apps/programs Shares files & folders on a small network with limited security. Network OS (NOS) designed for corporate environment serving multiple users. Windows 7 Starter: Used on netbooks to make networking easy. Home Premium: Used on home computers to easily share media.
Professional: Used on small business computers to secure critical info and to make routine tasks easier to complete. Enterprise: Used on large business computers to provide enhanced productivity, security and management features. Ultimate: Used to combine the ease of use of Home Premium with business capabilities of Professional and provide added data security. Vista Home Basic: Home computers, basic computing Home Premium: Home computers, expand personal productivity & digital entertainment Business: Used on small business computers for enhanced security and enhanced mobility technology.
Enterprise: Large business computers, provide enhanced security, productivity management features. Ultimate: Used to combine all the needs of both home and business users. Professional: Used on most computers that connect to a Windows Server on a network. Home: Used on home computers, limited security. Media Center: Entertainment computers, for viewing movies and listening to music. 4-Bit Professional: Used for computers with 64-bit processors Apple Mac OS Apple computers are Intel-based PCs and us an OS called Mac OS. Designed to be a user-friendly GUI OS. Linux Introduced late ’60s, open source OS. 5. 1. 2. 2 NOS- NOS can: Support multiple users Runs multi-user apps/programs Provides increased security compared to desktop OS NOS provides network resources, like: Server applications, such as shared databases Centralized data storage Centralized repository of user accounts and resources on the network Network print queue Redundant storage systems, such as RAID and backups. Examples of NOS: Windows Server Red Hat Linux Mac OS X server -5. 1. 3. 1 OS Compatible Apps and Environments- Recommend an OS based on what programs the customer will use, and if they will get new computers.
Must review dollar limit, learn how the computer will be used, what types of apps will be installed. Will they use off-the-shelf programs? Will they use custom programs, made Just for them? -5. 1. 3. 2 Minimum Hardware Requirements and Compatibility with the OS Platform- OS have minimum hardware requirements to run properly! Must also be considered when recommending an OS. It MAY also be less expensive to buy a new computer than it is to upgrade it! Also might be more cost effective to upgrade 1+ of these components: HDD Check for hardware compatibility as well!
Windows 7 and XP have online Compatibility Center, allows checking for hardware AND software compatibility. Microsoft Compatibility Center does NOT support XP. XP DOES have a Hardware Compatibility List, found on manufacturer website, might not be up to date though. -5. 1. 3. 3 Comparing OS Requirements- Windows Version Features Ideal Use 7 Starter 1 GHz or faster 16 GB space available MINIMUM DirectX 9 with WDDM 1. 0 or later driver Jump Lists Snap Windows Search Netbook 7 Home Premium GB(32-bit) or 2 GB(64-bit) 16 GB (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit) available DirectX 9 graphics with WDDM 1. Shake Customizable Themes Improved Desktop Navigation Internet TV HomeGroup Users who want to share media 7 Professional 1 GB(32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit) Location aware printing WinXP mode Domain Join Backups to home or business network People who use business application and want to secure data 7 Ultimate 1 GB (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit) BitLocker Switch between any of 35 languages Need security, share media and run multiple business application 7 Enterprise wtnxp Mode Windows BitLocker Drive Encryption
DirectAccess Large businesses that require volume licensing Vista Home Basic 512 MB 20 GB HDD with at least 15 GB free Support for DirectX 9 and 32 MB of graphics memory User Account Control Windows Defender Windows Firewall Instant Search Network and Sharing Center Basic computing needs Vista Home Premium 40 GB HDD with 15 GB free Support for DirectX 9 graphics with: WDDM Driver 128 MB of graphics memory Pixel Shader 2. 0 32 bits per pixel Windows Aero Windows Mobility Center Windows Meeting Space Windows Slideshow Windows Media Center Scheduled Backip Windows DVD Maker Windows Movie Maker in HD
Need to go beyond basics with improved productivity and digital entertainment Vista Business Windows Complete PC Backup and Restore Windows Fax and Scan Remote Desktop Connection Own or run a small business Vista Ultimate Windows Utimate Extras Use same computer for work and home use Vista Enterprise XP Home 233 MHZ 64 MB 1. 5 GB free super VGA (800×600) Improved hardware and software compatibility Fast User Switching New User Interface Simplified Security Simplified Log-on Enhanced support for digital media Generally used by consumers XP Media Center 1. 3 GHz or higher 256 MB Support for DirectX9 Specialized version of XP Home for organizing & displaying all kinds of media. Great to connect to a TV to enjoy DVR functionality. XP Professional Remote Desktop Support for multi-processors Encrypted File System Domain Membership Group Policy Roaming Profiles Automated System Recovery Support for Dynamic Disks Sysprep Support Generally used by business professionals. -5. 1. 4. 1 Checking OS Compatibility- Periodic upgrades necessary to maintain compatibility with new hardware and software. Free utility from Microsoft, Upgrade Advisor.
Scans for hardware and software incompatibility issues in hardware before pgrading to newer editions of the OS. Creates a report of any problems, and guides through the steps to resolve them. Downloadable from the Microsoft website. To use Upgrade Advisor, use these steps: Step 1 . Download and run the Windows 7 Upgrade Advisor from the Microsoft website. Step 2. Click Start check. The program scans your computer hardware, devices, and installed software. A compatibility report is presented. Step 3. Click Save Report if you want to keep it or print it later. Step 4.
Examine the report. Record any recommended fixes for the issues found. Step 5. Click Close. Recommended to run again after making the changes. 5. 1. 4. 2 Windows OS Upgrades- Upgrading an OS can be quicker than a new installation. The upgrade process varies depending on the version. Version of an OS determines available upgrade options. A 32-bit OS can NOT be upgraded to a 64-bit OS. -5. 1. 4. 3 Data Migration- 3 tools to migrate data from old OS to a new one. 1. User State Migration Tool a. Migrates all user files and settings to the new OS b. Download and install from Microsoft. c.
Creates a store of user files in a different location than the OS. d. Download and install on new OS to load files and settings to the new OS. 2. Windows Easy Transfer . Used to transfer to an entirely different computer. b. Can be performed using a USB cable, CD/DVD, flash drive, external drive or network connection. c. Start>All Programs>Accessories>System Tools>Windows Easy Transfer 3. Files and Settings Transfer Wizard for Windows XP a. Transfers from old computer to new computer. b. Allows to select which files and settings to transfer. c. Can use storage media, cable connection, or network connection. d.
Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Files and Settings Transfer Wizard -5. 2. 1. 1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures- Perform a clean install when: Computer is passed from one employee to another When the OS is corrupt When the primary hard drive is replaced in a computer Installation and initial booting of the OS = operating system setup Partitioning Primary partition: contains the OS files, usually the first partition. There can be up to 4 per HDD. Can NOT be subdivided into smaller sections. Active partition: OS uses to boot the computer. Only one primary partition per disk can be considered active.
Extended partition: Normally uses remaining free space on a HDD or replaces primary partition. Can be only one per hard drive, but can be subdivided into logical drives. Logical Drive: Section of an extended partition. Used to separate information for administrative purposes. Basic Disk: Contains primary & extended partitions, as well as logical drive. Dynamic Disk: Can create volumes that span across more than one disk. Size of partitions can be changed after being set. Free space can be added from the same disk or a different disk After being extended, a partition cannot be shrunk without deleting the partition.
Formatting: Prepares a file system in a partition for files to be stored. Sector: Contains 512 bytes Cluster: File Allocation Unit. Smallest unit of space used for storing data. Made of 1+ sectors. Track: One complete circle that can contain data on one side of a hard drive platter. Broken into groups of sectors. Cylinder: A stack of tracks lined up one on top of another in a cylinder shape. -5. 2. 1. 2 Hard Drive Formatting- Clean installation: NO INFORMATION PRESERVED Phase 1 partitions and formats the HDD. Prepares the disk to accept the new file system.
Windows OS uses NTFS and FAT32 file systems NTFS: New Technology File System Supports partition sizes up to 16 Exabytes in theory. Has more file system security features and extended attributes. FAT32: File Allocation Table, 32 bit Supports partition sizes up to 2 TB, or 2,048 6B. Used by Windows XP and earlier OS versions. Preferred file system type for clean install of Windows is NTFS. Security Can support more & larger files. More flexible security features for files and folders. you CAN convert FAT32 partitions to NTFS using CONVERT. EXE utility. ro make an NTFS a FAT32: Back up data Reformat the partition Restore data from a backup. Win 7 and Vista automatically use entire HDD as a partition. If user doesn’t create a new partition, system formats the partition and begins installing Windows. Before users install Win XP, must create new partition. When new partition created, prompted to choose the size of the partition. After creation, user is given choice to format with NTFS or FAT. exFAT (FAT 64): Made to fix some limitations of FAT, FAT32 and NTFS when formatting flash drives, like file and directory size.
Compact Disc File System (CDFS) – Made JUST for optical disk media. Quick Format vs Full Format Installing Windows XP, format can be done using quick or full format. Quick Format: Removes files from the partition, does not scan for bad sectors. Full format: Removes files from partition while scanning for bad sectors. Required for all new hard drives, takes longer to complete. 5. 2. 1. 3 Worksheet- 1 . What is the default cluster size setting when formatting a Windows NTFS partition on a hard disk drive larger than 2 6B? 2. What is the command used to change a FAT32 partition to an NTFS partition?
CONVERT. EXE 3. What is the Master File Table (MET) and what does it contain? File that contains all information about every file in the NTFS file system. 4. What is NTFS Journaling? Persistent log of changes made to files on a volume. 5. How does Journaling help an operating system recover from system failures? Automatic backup needs to know what changes have been made to make an accurate ackup. 6. Why is an NTFS partition more secure than FAT32? NTFS prevents changes from unauthorized users and prevents them from reading data, as well as automatically encrypting files. 5. 2. 1. 4 OS Installation with Default Settings- Using Windows 7 install disc Install Now: Sets up and installs the Windows 7 OS What to know before installing Windows: Opens Help & Support window describing the Upgrade and Custom options. Repair your computer: Opens System Recovery Options to repair an installation. Select the installation that needs repair and click Next. Choose from a number of recovery tools, like Startup Repair. Locates and repairs problems with OS files. If it does not fix the problem, try another utility.
After selecting Install Now, 3 options available: Upgrade: Upgrades Windows, but keeps current files, settings and programs. Custom (advanced) – Clean copy of Windows in your chosen location, lets you change disks and partitions. Increases likelihood of a successful installation. Quit: Exits Setup. If existing installations aren’t found, Upgrade option is disabled. During installation, you must provide the following info: Language to use Standards & formats, defining currency and numerals Keyboard/input method Physical location of installation