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Convict in Australia

During the 18th to 19th century, It had a large group of convicts were transported to Australia. Convicts are the people who found guilty of crime. All the convicts were transported Australia by ship and fleets. After the first fleet arrived to Australia, there were a lot of fleets arrived to Australia as well. Consequently, The Australia’s government were kept for each convict and up till the mid-1800s they recorded names, date and place of trial and sentence. The convicts were transported to all over Australia such as New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria etc…

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The British government sent the first convict s to New South Wales in 1788. British decided to send the army and prison officers as well as the prisoners. They were almost all of them English from British. About 83 percent of convicts are male and 70 percent are speaking English, but 75 percent were unskilled workers. The oldest person was about sixty year old and youngest is about nine. The reason of sent the convicts to Australia. It prevented the continent natural resource and raw material which England wanted.

The problems solves with British’s overcrowded prisons by establishing a new penal colony which showed promises for eventually becoming self- supporting. In 1718, British had been sending the convicts to American colonies, but the American Revolutionary war about the war of independences. After 1775, the convicts transported to America had end. Secondly, it was England but the convicts extremely unhealthy when they travelled overnight to Australia. The west India and Africa were unsuitable for convicts to live there.

Likewise, diseases and climates are also problems of immigration. India had already crowed of population, so they didn’t allow the people to immigrate. Admittedly, New South Wales accepted convicts to immigrate Australia after 1842. The benefits on immigrate was the population had grown up, the successful on free immigration. They brought some skilled and money which was achieve the country of economic system. The first fleet transported all the purely political crime at the first transportation.

They were the criminal just stolen the foods and clothing for their family, It only the little crime. They almost all English people and coming from London. The first Capital colony of governor is called Arthur Phillip. He set sail on May 13th, 1787 from Portsmouth with 11 vessels. Afterward, there are six ships transported to Australia. He arrived in New South Wales with 717 convicts of whom 180 were women, guarded by 191 marines under 19 officers. It arrived in Port Jackson in 1790.

Specially, the first convicts’ ship to be primarily for women. The women of convicts got the worse treatment than men on the voyage, nearby came in every day to work in Female Factory. Children of convict women either stayed with their mothers or were moved to an orphanage. Young convict girls were also employed in the Female Factory In 1790, the second fleet transported from England It was unable to complete the voyage. Only 48 people died in the first group of ships, but this time 278 died during the voyage.

This time transporting the convicts was in the hands of private contractors. The third fleet of 11 ships, It arrived in 1791, with over 2000 convicts. The newspaper report states that 194 male convicts and 4 female convicts died during the voyage They stared send the convict to Australia after American war of independences and Revolution and the government had stopped to send the convicts to America after the civil. Sydney in particular city, the continent was thought to be uninhabited.

The distance of the countries was so far for prisons to escape and the population were also changed the decisions of the immigration. It was 3000 kilometres by sea to Jakarta, then Dutch East India. It also helped the Sydney had the world best natural. In later years, after other Australian settlements had been established, the transports often stopped at more than one destination to land convicts. From England the transports may have stopped off at Gibraltar, a port in the West Indies, South America, the Cape of Good Hope, and the other one of the Australian penal settlements.

In addition, it had totally more than 2 million British and 4 million Australian are related to convicts transported from British in 18th-19th. In now day, there are no more convicts to be sending to Australia. All the convicts had immigrated to Australia and they brought their family members as well. In modern century, Australian government promote the immigration and education to the other countries. It attacks many the people to come and get a better life and different lifestyles, so now in Australia is a multicultural country.

Words 781 Reference ABC News 2011, ‘Online records highlight Australia’s convict past’, viewed at 25th March 2011, . Bateson Charles 2008, ‘Convict ships to Australia’, viewed 25th March 2011, < http:// member. iinet. net. au/~perthdps/convicts/ships. html>. ‘Female Convicts’, Defiance and Solidarity, viewed at 25th March 2011, . Reakes, J 2000, ‘1788-1868 Convict Records’ , Perth Cultural Centre publishers, Perth, SA Rienits, R 2009, ‘Convict life in Australia’, Australia Heritage, Dee Why West, NSW, Australia


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