Computerization of the Medical Records
CHAPTER I Introduction Computer-based patient records is a system in which its function are becoming an essential technology for health care in part because the information management challenges were being faced by health care professionals that are increasing daily. The system stores data regarding additional medical information records in a relational database. Most published studies to date have been in the area of keeping the records safety. The database is a general setting of compiling not only the records of the patients but all the records.
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These computerized records of the patients in Rural Health Units of Irosin will develop and improve our health offices. Under database, the program, inquiries are now being done fast and easy using required data like patient’s name, birth date and etc. The system stores data regarding additional medical information records in a relational database. A Computerized Medical Records greatly improves the quality services of care that the physicians by allowing easy and organized access to critical patients data. The computerized medical record lies at the center of any computerized data.
The efficiency, safeties, organization of medical records will give of these computerized medical records. Background of the Study The Rural Health Unit of Irosin is one of the important establishments in our community that serves our people everyday in their Health problems. This service is a very big help on the people of Irosin. Nurses and Doctors provide manual process of recording health and disease of the patients. They kept it in folder and drawers. As the patients enter the Health Center the employees try making it as omfortable as they face the patients. Interviewers must not let the patient’s sees there tiredness. The information, nurses and doctor, together they help each other to make it an organize the manual process. This process is being used until today. Our health center is outdated. It makes the workers time and energy consuming. They find it not good for the patients because it takes them a long time looking for the files. So instead of healing, patients get weaker. We proposed this project thesis to help our fellow citizen of Irosin.
This is about the organization of records; we will create a database program to process the files of the patients more organize, time, and energy saving, plus an updated RHU to the modern civilization for the good ness of all Irosinians. Statement of the Problem We proposed the computerization of the Medical Records of the patients in the Rural Health Units using the database program. Use and manipulate it easily. For the accuracy and efficiency of works. And gather easily and safety stored the important files of the patients for the comfort ness of both the patients and the employees.
This project sought to answer the following questions: * How can we make easy the finding of records? * How can we improve the record, its organization, and keeping? * How can we have secure record/confidential records? * How can we have copies of records in order to have hard duplicates or even triplicates? * How to help the employees to be comfortable in organization of records? * How to give benefit to the patients? * How can we give the employees a benefit for their services? As proponents, we need to make a more efficient Medical Record in order to solve these problems.
Scope and Delimitation This proposed project is design only to help make the record more organize and easier for the employees to find. This project will focus only on the following: First, is on the patient’s Medical Record, the personal and health record. Data will be transferred in a database program designed to kept the record files organize and easy to find. Second, is the records organization and keeping. This part is related as the primary purposes of our thesis project. Third, is how confidential records will be safety kept and delivered to those patients cannot take it easily.
This project will try not to be broad, for easiness and briefness. To make this project worthy of approval. Significance of the Study We had seen that the records, its organization, and keeping are improper and not related to what the employees want it to be. So, this project is proposed to organize the medical records of the patients in the Rural Health Units. Not only for the comfort ability of the employee but also for the benefit of the patients. A Rural Health Units includes a number of features that allow the clinical side of the practice to operate more efficiently.
Patient Records users enjoy these benefits from their system. Successful computerized medical records are more efficient than traditional offices system. As a result, the number of worker required to support physicians is lower than at paper based offices. These improvements can be attributed to the following: * Improves documentation quality (legible, organized, complete) * Improves medication management * Enhances efficiency management * Reduces internal/external copying expenses * Improves the completeness of documentation Improves coding accuracy * Increasing the number of services * Reduces chart pulls and less filing * Eliminates time spent searching for lost records * Improves internal office communication * Reduces call- backs or patients un-satisfaction CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature Foreign Studies A computer system with a workflow server provides for automatic and prioritized assignment of work involving processing of medical information records, or “charts”, to particular resources (personnel) in a hospital.
In particular, as the system stores data regarding additional medical information records in a relational database, the workflow server identifies which such additional records constitute a new encounter for a particular patient. For each encounter, the system defines one or more visit cases, and may identify for each visit further subset cases for one or more of a number of application programs. Such application programs may include coding/abstracting of documents and assigning deficiencies in documents for completion.
The system defines states corresponding to each application program. In response to requests from the application programs, the workflow server routes each defined case to a particular work queue within the proper state, and then can assign each case to a particular resource (employee) within the proper work queue. The criteria for the type and number of work queues within each state, and the criteria for the assignment of resources within each work queue, can be identified with whatever sophistication or prioritization that a hospital may desire. Garcia Rodriguez LA, Perez Gutthann S.
The last decade has seen a surge in the use of computerized health care data for pharmacoepidemiology. Of all European databases, the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) in the UK has been the most widely used for pharmacoepidemiological research. Since 1994, this database has belonged to the UK Department of Health, and is maintained by the Office of National Statistics (ONS). Currently, around 1500 general practitioners with population coverage in excess of 3 million, systematically provide their computerized medical data anonymously to ONS. Validation studies of the GPRD ave documented the recording of medical data into general practitioners’ computers to be near to complete. The GPRD collects truly population-based data, has a size that makes it possible to follow-up large cohorts of users of specific drugs, and includes both outpatient and inpatient clinical information. The access to original medical records is excellent. Desirable improvements to the GPRD would be additional computerized information on certain variables and linkage to other health care databases. Most published studies to date have been in the area of drug safety.
The General Practice Research Database has proved that valuable data can be collected in a general practice setting. The full potential of this rich computerized database has yet to come. This experience should serve to encourage others to develop similar population-based data in other countries. Improving Patient Records Computer-based patient records and the system in which they function are becoming an essential technology for Health care in part because the information management challenges faced by health care professionals are increasing daily.
Technological progress makes it possible for CPRs and CPR systems to provide total, cost-effective access to more complete, accurate patient care data and to offer improved performance and enhanced functions that can be used to meet those information management challenges. CPRs can play an important role in improving the quality of patient care and strengthening the scientific basis of clinical practice; they can also contribute to the management and moderation of health care costs.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) study committee believes that the time is right for a major initiative to make CPRs a standard technology in health care within a decade. Achieving this goal within 10 years will require a nationwide effort and a great deal of work. More research and development are needed in several critical areas to ensure that systems meet the needs of patients, practitioners, administrators, third-party payers, researchers, and policymakers. For example, the need to protect patient privacy must be balanced by the need for timely access to data at multiple sites.
Systems must offer both considerable flexibility for users and standards required for data transfers and exchange. CPR implementation will necessitate both organizational and behavioral changes. Organizationally, it will require substantial coordination across the many elements of the pluralistic U. S health care system. Behaviorally, it will that users develop new skills to use CPR systems and to change their documentation behaviors. Local Studies The Medical Records Department (MRD) forms part of the basic hospital set-up.
Its functions among others include the following: (a) to ensure that patients’ records are available at all times; (b) to see to it that medical records are maintained in accordance with principles and practices of efficient and effective MRD; (c) to maintain comprehensive indexes; (d) to review records for completeness and accuracy; (e) to respond to subpoenas and medico-legal cases directed to the hospital; and (f) to maintain and safeguard the confidentiality of medical records. In 1968, MMC opened its own medical records department at the 3rd floor circular portion of the building.
Staffed with only 7 employees with Sr. Rosalinda Vijandre as its head, paper work were then quite few since the hospital had just begun admitting patients and the total recorded admission for that year was only 583 patients. From the period beginning 1971 to 1975 MRD had recorded a total of 96,324 admitted patients. MRD had acquired its first microfilm machine to keep away some files since it had started running out of filing space. In 1986, the hospital management bought a personal computer for MRD; an XT model with 120 MB hard disk system.
This acquisition boosted the capability of MRD as this has enabled them to put into the computer a program for “Patient Index System”. Under this program, inquiries are now being done fast and easy using either patient’s name, birth date, admission date or discharge date. The computer can also assign automatically the patient’s hospital number and simultaneously give out the date of previous admissions. This is very important in the retrieval of re-admitted patient’s previous hospital records as well as to prevent error of assigning more than two hospital numbers to one patient and consequently destroy the very essence of record compilation.
More inputs were done on the computer, such as those involving different compilation as for instance: the compilation of patient’s data; record of admission; microfilm record and census report of ER patients. Towards the end of 1974, MRD was rendered helpless with the volume of records to microfilm. It had almost run out of space for the storage of huge volumes of patient’s records. MRD could not however move those films from their place until they are microfilmed. So that eventually, in 1995 a more modern, high tech microfilm machine from Kodak was acquired.
It was a Kodak IM 70 model, which can store thousands of data in film cassette which is 4 to 5 times faster than the previous one. It also had a lot of distinct features such as: a) the microfilm could be done in any ambient light condition; b) it had an automatic feeder; c) it could automatically stamp the document with labels while microfilming; d) it could produce about five or more rolls of films per day; and e) it could capture about 200 documents per minute. With the help of the new microfilm machine, the MRD can now catch up on the fast pace of records turnover.
Conveniently however, in 1996 MRD has found a solution for its long time storage problem with the help of File Manager, a company that renders filing and storage services. MRD is now situated at the 3rd Floor annex of the hospital adjacent to the Floating Island Restaurant. Headed by Mrs. Lilian S. Garcia, the department is presently staffed by 4 supervisors, 2 programmers, a secretary, 7 senior clerks and 21 junior clerks. CHAPTER III System Analysis and Design * Existing System Overview Until now, the Rural Health Unit of Irosin is still using the manual process of making records and keeping it by using folders.
And to organize it as it is, they compile those folders in drawers. So, with this improper keeping of records, most of the problems are finding it that give sick to the employees and making hard for the patients who were sickly waiting. Not only that, it also waist the time of employees and patients. Narrative Description of the Process Flow The flow of process starts from the patient. First, the patient will complain to the Information. Then, with that complain, the Information Officer will ask questions of identification and to confirm it, he/she will find the record from those folders.
The finding of record will make a wasteful time for both of the patient and employees of that RHU. After that, the patient will now go to the doctor for the check-up. After that, the doctor will give the patient the medicine or if not the prescription and then release the patient. In the other hand, that information of check-up will be recorded or renew the past record. Input Forms The data being inputted in the record are mostly from the patients. Those are there personal information so to identify there records. These are the following: * Name – names of the patients including first name, last name, and middle name or maiden name. Address – the address of the patients where they reside. This includes the street, the district or municipality and the province or city where they belong to. * Age – the present age of the patient when he/she was checked-up. * Sex – the sex of the patient if he/she is a male or a female. * Contacts – number or address that the doctor needs to refer to in case of patient’s emergency. * Date of Birth – the date when the patient was born. * Guardian/ Parent – the person related to the patient whom the doctor needs to contact in case of emergency. * Medical Information – nformation like blood type, blood rate/ pressure, weight, height, pulse rate, respiratory rate, etc. These are some inputted data that came from doctors who conducted the check-up. * Record Date – the date when the file is being recorded. * Treatment Number – the number of treatment or from what number of treatment it follows. * Date of Consultation – the date when the patient had consulted. Must be the same date as the record date. * Report of Patient’s History – the present and past history of the patients’ disease. * Diagnosis – the result of the check-up or the final/total report of the disease.
Data Processing Procedure The process of these data is conducted by the Information Officer or the Doctor himself. As being said from the description of the process flow, the personal information taken from the patient by the information officer will guide the Info. Off. to find the related information to the records. Then it will also be given to the doctor for referrals of the check-up. And after the check-up, those data from patient, with the data from the doctor will be recorded again or renew the existing record. Output Forms and it Processing Procedures
The output forms were the reports of the gathered data. These were: * Medical Certificate * Medical Record And those data will now become record and will be kept for the patients return. And for his/ her other future complains, it will be renew or make a new record. * Proposed System Introduction The proposed system is designed to solve the problems being encountered in the Rural Health Unit. It is the Automation of the Existing System. Narrative Descriptions of the Flow As a start, like the manual system, the patient will give his/her complains to the Information Officer.
Then the Information Officer will ask him/her some questions about his/her Identification and that information will be the referral in finding the record. And then, the Info. Officer will find the record in the designed database. There, it will only input the required information so as to open the Record. It will only take a while. Then, the patient will now go to the doctor for Check-up. After that, same thing, the doctor will give the medicine, if not, the prescription and then release the patient. In the other hand, the result of the check-up will be recorded again or renew the existing record in the database.
Save and Print for a hard copy in case of loosing file or problems in computer operation. The Proposed Output Forms The outputs were more presentable than the existing because of computerized forms and satisfying data and information were well presented in the output. These were: * Medical Certificate * Medical Record * Personal Information/Data * Confidential Health Data (not being presented to the public unless said so by Authorities/Doctor) Economic Feasibility of the Proposed System Development Cost Computer Desktop Cost- From PhP 20,000. 00- above Licensed copy of OS Cost- PhP 9,000. 00
Licensed copy of Software Cost- PhP 9,000. 00 Use Training Cost- PhP 2,500. 00 Development Labor Cost- 7,500. 00 Annual Operating Cost Maintenance Cost- PhP 2,500. 00per month Technical Inspection Cost- PhP 5000. 00 every Third Month System Requirements Operating System * Windows 2000 Professional * Windows XP Professional Software Requirements * Microsoft Office 2000 Professional * Microsoft Office XP Professional Capacity * Memory must be high because this will hold the Medical Record of the Population of Irosin Other Devices * Printer * Other devices that will help the Record Keeping and Organization
Comparative Analysis of the Existing and the Proposed System Existing System The flow of process starts from the patient. First, the patient will complain to the Information. In the other hand, that information of check-up will be recorded or renew the past record. The data being inputted in the record are mostly from the patients. Those were there personal information so to identify there records. Name – names of the patients including first name, last name, and middle name or maiden name. Address – the address of the patients where they reside. Date of Birth – the date when the patient was born.
Medical Information are the information like blood type, blood rate/ pressure, weight, height, pulse rate, respiratory rate, etc. Record Date – the date when the file is being recorded. Date of Consultation – the date when the patient had consulted. The process of these data is conducted by the Information Officer or the Doctor himself. Medical Certificate, Medical Record. And those data will now become record and will be kept for the patients’ future use. Proposed System Officer will find the record in the designed database. Then, the patient will now go to the doctor for Check-up.
The Medical Record and Personal Information/Data were being separated for confidentiality and security. Only that using Computerized is more expensive in Technical procedures and Maintenance. CHAPTER IV Research Design The group will use the interview techniques with questionnaire as the primary tool in gathering information needed to make this project. Data Gathering Techniques We, the group, used some questionnaires and interview about the transaction of medical records of patients in Rural Health Units. Preparation. The group prepared the questionnaires and interview for the personnel in charged in medical records of patients.
It will be used as a basis for the propose Medical Record. Organization. The group organized the medical records by using the designed MS Access Database. Coordination. The group coordinated to the people in charged to keep confidential and lawfully organizing the medical records of patients. Data Gathering Tools Questionnaires. It was used as the basis of the Proposed System. To make it more appropriate and not living the original purpose of Medical Record. Computer and Other Devices. To document the data and other information, to process words and to save it as our back-up information and print it as an output, we uses computer.
Internet. We used the Internet information as the second source of data and made a user friendly program. Database Specification Program Presentation Design Figure 1: Introductory Form Figure 2: Login Form Figure 3: Switchboard Figure 4: Personal Form Figure 5: Disease Form Flow Diagram of manual process: PATIENTS (a)INFORMATION Getting the data from the patients (b) INFORMATION Processing the data DOCTOR NEW DATA (DIAGNOSIS) Patient’s release Prescription (Rx) Proposed Diagram Patients Information officer Doctor Prescription and diagnosis release CHAPTER V Recommendation, Conclusion and Summary
Recommendation We believe that this time is right for improving our health offices for major initiative to make standard technology. Achieving this goal is a very great deal to work. These can make the performance of the worker enhanced and access to more complete, accurate patients care and data. Computerization of documentation provides some benefits for those involved in litigation. One of the most obvious benefits is the creation of legible records. Computer-printed records are completely legible, therefore eliminating the confusion caused by guessing at the meaning of handwritten words.
Tampering with the medical record is much more difficult to do with an electronic system. Software programs contain a way to correct mistaken entries, such as an incorrect entry, misspelled word, or typographical error. A clock embedded in the software program indicates the precise time and date of an entry, which makes it impossible to backdate information to make it look as if it was entered earlier. Software programs contain a feature that makes the entry unalterable after a certain time or event. The typical method is to make the entry unchangeable once it is authenticated.
There is a regularly scheduled backup time to store data, making it impossible for someone to delete previous entries once they are saved. Our computerized medical records system is proven to eliminate soaring transcription costs, decrease malpractice exposure, and dramatically reduce paper and storage costs…which in turn increase your profitability. Improved risk management. By eliminating illegible charts and providing easier and more accurate compliance reporting, risks are better handled. Patient data is more securely safeguarded, requirements are easier to comply with and the risk of documentation audits is minimized.
It’s also very easy to back up your database and store the information off-site. By computerizing patient records you eliminate transcription costs, maximize medical coding and ease the charting task. Your office is also able to see more patients and reallocate staffing. Automation also allows for easier billing and claims filing, maximized medical coding, an improved workflow and customized reporting. Point-of-care charting improves documentation and makes patient records instantly accessible. All patient-related messages are captured and charted to the appropriate record, which is instantly accessible.
Because your patient records are computerized, you can share patient information among staff to complete multiple tasks at once and you are able to do more comprehensive documentation in less time. Conclusion A medical record includes any of an individual’s health documents of the types listed. It’s may be on “physical” media such as film (x-rays), paper (notes), or photographs, often of different sizes and shapes. Physical storage of documents is problematic, as not all document types fit in the same size folders or storage spaces. Physical records sually require significant amounts of space to store them. When physical records are no longer maintained, the large amounts of storage space are no longer required. Paper, film, and other expensive physical media usage (and therefore cost) is also reduced with computerized record storage. When paper records are stored in different locations, furthermore, collecting and transporting them to a single location for review by a healthcare provider is time-consuming. When paper (or other types of) records are required in multiple locations, copying, faxing, and transporting costs are significant.
Handwritten paper medical records can be associated with poor legibility, which can contribute to medical errors. Electronic records help with the standardization of forms, terminology and abbreviations, and data input. A CMR can come with multiple security levels and it often uses the most advanced security technology to protect patient data. Summary A medical record is very important and it must be secured for the patient’s security. The computerizations of the medical records were implemented in every hospital for records care. This can make the records safe and it makes the job well and accurate and efficient.
It will also improve documentation quality, better patient’s communication, and enhances efficiency management. Not only that, it also reduces labor cost, lower internal or external copying expenses and lower malpractice insurance cost. It improves the completeness of documentation, coding accuracy, and increasing the number of services. By this, we develop our very own database software program that enables user to have an easy access of retrieving data together with the records of the patients and the confidential data files. Database Specification Manual Data Dictionary
Field Names property is use to specify the name of a field within a table. For example, you can specify “Last Name” for a field that stores employees’ last names within the Employees table. Data Type property is use to specify the type of data stored in a table field. Each field can store data consisting of only a single data type. Description property is use to provide information about objects contained in the Database window as well as about individual table or query fields. Setting The DataType property uses the following settings. Setting| Type of data| Size|
Text| (Default) Text or combinations of text and numbers, as well as numbers that don’t require calculations, such as phone numbers. | Up to 255 characters or the length set by the FieldSize property, whichever is less. Microsoft Access does not reserve space for unused portions of a text field. | Memo| Lengthy text or combinations of text and numbers. | Up to 65,535 characters. (If the Memo field is manipulated through DAO and only text and numbers [not binary data] will be stored in it, then the size of the Memo field is limited by the size of the database. )| Number| Numeric data used in mathematical calculations.
For more information on how to set the specific Number type, see the FieldSize property topic. | 1, 2, 4, or 8 bytes (16 bytes if the FieldSize property is set to Replication ID). | Date/Time| Date and time values for the years 100 through 9999. | 8 bytes. | Currency| Currency values and numeric data used in mathematical calculations involving data with one to four decimal places. Accurate to 15 digits on the left side of the decimal separator and to 4 digits on the right side. | 8 bytes. | AutoNumber| A unique sequential (incremented by 1) number or random number assigned by Microsoft Access whenever a new record is added to a table.
AutoNumber fields can’t be updated. For more information, see the NewValues property topic. | 4 bytes (16 bytes if the FieldSize property is set to Replication ID). | Yes/No| Yes and No values and fields that contain only one of two values (Yes/No, True/False, or On/Off). | 1 bit. | OLE Object| An object (such as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, a Microsoft Word document, graphics, sounds, or other binary data) linked to or embedded in a Microsoft Access table. | Up to 1 gigabyte (limited by available disk space)| Hyperlink| Text or combinations of text and numbers stored as text and used as a hyperlink address.
A hyperlink address can have up to three parts: text to display— the text that appears in a field or control. address— the path to a file (UNC path) or page (URL). subaddress— a location within the file or page. screentip— the text displayed as a tooltip. The easiest way to insert a hyperlink address in a field or control is to click Hyperlink on the Insert menu. | Each part of the three parts of a Hyperlink data type can contain up to 2048 characters. | Lookup Wizard| Creates a field that allows you to choose a value from another table or from a list of values by using a list box or combo box.
Clicking this option starts the Lookup Wizard, which creates a Lookup field. After you complete the wizard, Microsoft Access sets the data type based on the values selected in the wizard. | The same size as the primary key field used to perform the lookup, typically 4 bytes. | You can set this property only in the upper portion of table Design view. Microsoft Access Glossary 32-bit| A 32-bit operating system allows Windows 95 to access computer data faster than 16-bit systems by taking it in larger pieces. Action Queries| An action query not only finds designated records, but performs some sort of action on those records. | Add Line Mouse Pointer| The mouse pointer changes to an add line mouse pointer after you click the Line button. | Advanced Button| Use the Advanced button to further define the search for a file. | ALT| The [ALT] (or Alternate) key on the keyboard is used in conjunction with other keys and mouse actions to perform various commands and functions. | Append Queries| An append query adds the records from one table to the records in another table. ASCII| An ASCII file is a text file and may be either delimited or fixed width. | AutoCorrect| AutoCorrect is a feature that automatically corrects commonly misspelled words and allows the user to enter shorthand versions of frequently used words. | AutoForms| An AutoForm is a quick form that automatically includes every field from the table or query on which it is based. | AutoNumber| The AutoNumber format automatically assigns a new number when a record is entered. This is a good format to use for primary keys, because it ensures that unique numbers will be assigned to each record. AutoReports| An AutoReport is a quick report that automatically includes every field from the table or query on which it is based. | Axes| Axes are the lines that frame the bar chart area and provide a means for comparison. The Y axis is usually vertical and the X axis is usually horizontal. | Back Color Button| Use the Back Color button to change the background color of the selected control. | Back Style| The Back Style option allows you to determine whether the color of a control will be visible or transparent. | Bar Chart| A bar chart uses colored bars of various heights or lengths to represent each item. Bitmap| A bitmap is a type of graphics file that is usually created in MS Paint. | Border Width Button| Use the Border Width button to change the border width of the selected control. | Bound Control| A bound control in a form or report is one that is used to show or edit information from a table or query, such as a text box. | Browsing| Browsing means looking through a computer system to locate files, folders, applications, or printers. | Button| A button is an icon that represents a tool or command. | By Column Button| Use the By Column button in Microsoft Graph to place data series in columns. By Row Button| Use the By Row button in Microsoft Graph to place data series in rows. | Captions| Captions serve as column headers in tables or as labels in forms. | Click-and-drag| Click-and-drag refers to pressing and holding the left mouse button while moving the mouse. Click-and-drag is often used to move selected items or to select several items at one time. | Column Command| Use the Column command on the Insert menu to insert a new column to the left of the current column in Datasheet. | Column Headers| Column headers are the identifiers at the top of each column in a table.
The names of the headers should correspond to the field names. | Columns| Columns are the vertical divisions of a table. Fields are represented in tables as columns. Each column in the table represents one field. | Context-sensitive| Context-sensitive refers to information or menus that are specific to the selected object. | Control| A control is any graphical object on a form or report that can be selected or manipulated. Controls include, but are not limited to, text boxes, labels, graphics, and lines. | Criteria Row| Use the Criteria row in the design grid to specify parameters that desired records must meet.
For example, a criterion might tell the query to select all customer records having area code 407. A criterion is usually entered using an expression. | Data| Data is related information that is grouped and manipulated by an application. In Access, data is entered into the fields of a table. | Data Labels| Data labels provide additional information about the data in your chart. | Data Types| A field’s data type specifies and limits what kind of data may be entered into that field. | Database| A database is a collection of records pertaining to a specific topic.
Examples of databases include: customer lists, order records, telephone books, product listings, and Rolodex files. | Database Window| The Database window appears when you open a database. Depending on which option button you select, the Database window shows you a list of available tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules. The Database window allows you to select whether you want to design, edit, view, or create specific objects. | Database Wizards| A Database Wizard creates a database for you, automatically setting up appropriate tables, forms, and queries.
Access provides more than 20 Database Wizards, each devoted to a specific use, such as household inventory, ledgers, or inventory control. | Databases Card| Use the Databases card in the New dialog box to select one of the Database Wizards. | Datasheet View| Use a table’s Datasheet view to view, edit, or add data. @10| Datasheet View| A table’s Datasheet view allows you to view, edit, or add data to the table. | Default| A default setting is the software manufacturer’s preset option for a particular command or function. Default settings can be changed. Delimited| In a delimited text file, characters such as commas or tabs separate the fields. | Description| Use the description column in the Table Design view to describe each field in the table. | Deselecting| Deselecting is removing the active mark or highlight from an object. | Design Button| The Design button allows you to open the selected object in Design view, where changes can be made to the structure of the object. | Design Grid| The design grid is a graphical tool that allows you to create a query by placing fields from the upper half of the Query window into the design grid in the lower half of the window. Design View| A table’s Design view allows you to add fields or make changes to the overall formatting and properties of a table. | Detail And Summary| Use the Detail And Summary option in the Show section of the Summary Options dialog box to create a report that includes each record along with the summary calculations. | Detail Section| The detail section of a form contains one record. It should consist of any labels and fields that you want to display on the form. | Drag-select| Click-and-hold the left mouse button and move the mouse to select text or items. Drop-down List| A drop-down list is a list of choices that become available by clicking a text box or its adjacent down-arrow. | Embedded Object| An embedded object is linked to the original data and is updated when the original data is updated or changed. | Embossed Text| Embossed text is similar to shadowed text, though the effect is more of a highlight than a shadow. Embossed text takes the same color as the background and appears slightly raised. | Expression| An expression is used to specify criteria in a query. | Field| A field is a category of information, such as a phone number, product name, or unit cost.
If a table contains customer information, its fields might be first name, last name, address, city, state, zip code, and phone number. | Field List| The field list appears at the top of the Query design window when you have added a table to the query. It lists all of the fields in the table, and you can use it to add fields to the query design grid. | Field List Button| Use the Field List Button to open or close a list of fields available for use in a report or form. | Field Properties| A field’s properties govern how its data is displayed or stored. File Management| File management is the process of organizing objects contained on the hard disk into a formal structure of folders, subfolders, and files. | File Type| File type refers to the format the file was saved in and often refers to the application that created the file. | Files| A file is a collection of data referred to by a given name. | Filter By Form| A Filter By Form lets you designate the records you are seeking by opening a blank view of your datasheet or form and letting you type in or select from a drop-down list the data you are seeking. Filter By Selection| A Filter By Selection lets you designate the records you are seeking simply by clicking the value you are looking for within the form or datasheet. | Filters| A filter is a feature that provides a quick way to select and view designated records. Filters may be applied from within tables, forms, or the datasheet of a query. They can also be run from within another filter. A filter cannot be based on multiple tables or be used to perform calculations. | Find Command| The Find command allows you to search the computer for files and folders based on particular criteria. Find Now Button| Use the Find Now button to initiate the search for a designated file. | Fixed Width| In a fixed width file, fields are arranged in columns with spaces in-between. | Flipping| Flipping is the action of rotating or flipping an object either horizontally, vertically, left, or right. | Folders| Part of the organizational system of the computer disk, folders can contain files or other folders. | Font| A font is a style and size of type, such as Times New Roman, 12 point, bold. | Fonts Folder| The Fonts folder is an area on the system used for controlling and managing type styles. Fore Color Button| Use the Fore Color button to change the color of selected text. | Form| A form is a feature that shows only the information you want to see, in the order you want to see it. A form is used to view data in a database, enter new data into the database, or edit data. | Form View Button| Use the Form View button to switch between the Design, Form, and Database views of your form. | Form Wizard| Form Wizard provides step-by-step help in creating a form. | Formatting| Formatting is the way entries in a field are displayed or printed. For example, if 5. 9 is entered into a field formatted as currency, it will display as $5. 49. | Frame| A frame is a placeholder that may be inserted for a graphic. | Gridlines| Gridlines in a report are non-printing lines that help you to line up or position controls. They can be turned off or on from the View menu. Gridlines in a form are non-printing lines that help you to line up or position controls. | Group| When you group data in a report, you tell Access that you want certain data arranged together. For example, you might want to group order records by item number, with all the orders for a particular item number listed together. Grouping Objects| Grouping objects combines multiple objects into a single object with its own selection handles. | Groups/Totals Report| A Groups/Totals report, which can be created using Report Wizard, organizes data in a row-and-column format, grouping records based on specified fields. Totals and grand totals may then be calculated for each grouping. | Heading Section| The heading section of a form appears at the top of the form and usually consists of the title of the form. Other data that you may want in a heading section might be the date or the company name. Hot Spot| A hot spot is a green word or phrase that can be used to open help about that particular word or phrase. Click a hot spot with a solid underline to open a help document about the phrase. Click a hot spot with a dotted underline to open a pop-up window about the phrase. | Image Button| Use the Image button to create a frame for a graphic that cannot be edited from within Access. | Image Mouse Pointer| The mouse pointer changes to an Image mouse pointer when you can draw a frame for a graphic. | Import| Importing is the process of bringing in the data from another database (including non-Access databases). Index| Access uses indexes to help locate or sort records more quickly. | Input Mask| An input mask helps to control the values that are entered into a field and might include dashes, spaces, or parentheses. You then fill in the blanks. When you use Table Wizard, input masks may be automatically applied to certain fields, such as phone numbers or zip codes. | Insertion Point| The insertion point is the vertical, flashing bar that shows you your current position on screen. Whatever you type will be entered at this point. | Insertion Point| An insertion point is the place where text or graphics will appear in the document. Join Lines| A join line is drawn between two fields in different tables to indicate that the two tables are linked or joined by the data in those two fields. | Label| A label is any area on a form or report where titles or descriptions are shown. The label can stand alone or be attached to a control. If a label is attached to a control, it often contains the name of the field represented by the control. | Label Button| Use the Label button to create a label. | Label Mouse Pointer| The mouse pointer changes to a capital A with a plus sign once you have clicked the Label button and are ready to insert a label. Label Wizard| Label Wizard is one of the report wizards that runs you through a series of step-by-step dialog boxes that allow you to select the size of labels you wish to create. | Labels| A label is any area on a form or report where titles or descriptions are shown. A label can stand alone or be attached to a control. | Landscape| Landscape refers to the orientation of the paper. In Landscape mode, the report is formatted to fit 11″ x 8? ” paper. | Last Record Button| Use the Last Record button to take you to the last record in the table or form. Layout| The layout of the report is how the data is placed on the page, including how it is aligned and whether it is in a single column or multiple columns. Access provides several preformatted layout options from which to choose. | Legends| A legend provides a key to the data illustrated in a chart. | Line Button| Use the Line Button to draw a line. | Linking Tables| When an Access table is linked from another database, you have access to all of the records in the linked table. | Links| Links tell Access how the tables are related to each other by indicating which fields they have in common. Lookup Field| A Lookup field points to another table and lets you select data from that table by using a drop-down list. | Macro| A macro is an advanced option used to automate a series of tasks. You might want to write a macro to run functions that you perform on a regular basis, such as printing particular reports whenever you open a database. | Mailing Labels| Mailing Labels are address labels that are affixed to sales flyers, catalogs, or letters. | Main Form| A main form is the primary form and may contain one or more subforms. Make-table Queries| A make-table query takes the selected records and creates a new table with them. | Margins| Margins are the areas that border the printed portion of the page along the top, sides, and bottom. | Marquee-select| Marquee-selecting is the process of clicking-and-dragging the mouse pointer over a group of objects until a dotted line forms a box around it. | Match| The Match criterion in the Find in field dialog box lets you specify what part of the field needs to match the text you type in the Find What box. | MB| MB (or megabyte) is a data measurement. One megabyte is equal to 1,000 kilobytes of data. Menu Bar| A menu bar is a list of commands across the top of the screen that may be opened to reveal additional commands. | Microsoft Graph| Microsoft Graph is an application used within Microsoft software, such as Access, Word, and PowerPoint, to create graphic representations, or charts, of your data. | Module| A module is a unit of Visual Basic For Applications programming code and is much more complex than a macro. Modules allow you to create very sophisticated, customized databases; however, they require the ability to program in the Visual Basic For Applications language. More Files| Use the More Files option to see other databases that you have worked with if the database you want is not in the original list. | Multiple Table Queries| Multiple table queries are queries that use more than one table. | Multitasking| Multitasking is the process of running more than one application or activity at a time. | Name Property| The Name Property on the property sheet is used to rename a page on a tab control. | Navigation Buttons| The navigation buttons are a group of five buttons located at the bottom of a table or form. They move you to various records within the table or form. Navigation Keys| Navigation keys are keyboard keys that allow you to move around within a document, such as [PAGE UP], [HOME], and the arrow keys. | New Button| Click the New button to create a new object, depending on which object tab is selected. | Next Record Button| Use the Next Record button to take you to the next record in the table or form. | Normalization| Normalization is the process of splitting a table into related tables, in order to eliminate wasted space, redundancy, and keying errors. | Number Across| Number across refers to the number of labels that may be printed in a single row across the page or sheet. Object Tabs| The object tabs, which are located along the top of the Database window, allow you to switch between the available types of objects: tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules. | Objects| Objects are any data that can be used in an application or shared with other applications. | Office Assistant| The Office Assistant is a feature that provides help and tips as you work in Access. | OLE| Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) are processes that permit the sharing of files and objects between applications. | Open Database Button| Use the Open Database button to access an existing database so that you can open it. Open Hand Mouse Pointer| The Open Hand mouse pointer indicates that the pointer is in the correct position to move a text box and its attached label. | Option Button| An option button in a dialog box is a round button that is used to select one of several mutually exclusive commands. | Page| Each tab on a tab control is called a page. | Page Footer Section| Any controls in the Page Footer section in the report design window will appear at the bottom of every page of the report. | Plot Area| The plot area is the chart. It includes the axes, the data labels, the grid, and the bars, lines, or wedges that make up the chart. Point| Pointing is the action of placing the mouse pointer over the desired object or text. | Portrait| Portrait refers to the orientation of the paper. In Portrait mode, the report is formatted to fit 8? ” x 11″ paper. | Primary Key| The primary key is the unique identifier for each record, such as an employee number, a product number, or a customer number. Access will not allow duplicate entries in a field that is set up as a primary key. | Primary Key Fields| The primary key is the unique identifier for each record, such as an employee number, a product number, or a customer number. Print Area| Within a report, the print area is the area that will be printed, even though it may contain blank areas. In Report Design view, this is shown by default as a white background. | Print Preview| Print Preview is one of the report views. It allows you to see how the document will look when it is printed. | Properties Button| Use the Properties button to open the property sheet for the selected control. | Property Sheet| The property sheet contains settings that control the characteristics or appearance of the selected control. | Query| A query is a question that you ask about the data in your table(s).
For example, you may want to know which of your customers bought pinto beans in March. Access searches designated tables or queries and provides you with an answer. | Query Design View| Query Design view lets you build or edit a query using the design grid. | Query Type Button| Use the Query Type button to begin creating a specific type of query. | Query View Button| Use the Query View button to switch between the Design, SQL, and Datasheet views of your query. | Raised Special Effect| The Raised special effect makes the selected control appear slightly elevated from the background. Record| A record is all of the information collected about a specific event, thing, product, or person, such as a customer record. A record can consist of many fields. For instance, a customer record could consist of the customer’s first name, last name, address, city, state, zip code, and phone number. | Record Indicator| The record indicator is a small box that appears on the scroll box when the scroll box is clicked or moved. It displays which record number you are at in the table. | Record Selector| A record selector is the small box to the left of a record or row in a table. Click a record selector to select the adjacent record. Recordset| A Recordset is the result of a query. While the Recordset may look like a table or Datasheet, it exists only in the computer’s memory. Once you close it, it no longer exists unless you save it. | Referential Integrity| Referential integrity is a system of rules that Access uses to make sure that relationships between records in related tables are valid, and that you don’t accidentally delete or change related data. | Relational Database| A relational database management system is an application that allows you to organize, manipulate, query, and view your data, while building links between related opics. Access is a relational database management system. | Relationships| Relationships are ties that are created between tables in the database so that Access can combine data from more than one table to create reports. It is how tables determine how they correspond to each other. | Relationships Button| Use the Relationships button to open the Relationships window so that you can view, edit, or define relationships between tables and queries. | Replace Text Box| Use the Replace text box in the AutoCorrect dialog box to enter the text you want to replace. Report| A report is used to show and print selected information from a table in a customized manner. A report differs from a form because it does not allow you to make any modifications or edits to the actual records within the table(s). | Report Design View| Report Design view lets you create a report from scratch or modify the way a report appears. Fields, lines, labels, color, and graphics can be added to a report in Design view. | Report Sections| In Design view, a report is divided into different sections, which vary depending on the individual report. Some common sections include the Report Header, Detail, and Page Footer sections.
When printed, some sections, such as Report Header, appear only once on the report. Other sections, such as the Detail section, are repeated over and over until all the records are shown. | Report Wizard| Report Wizard helps you create a report by giving you a variety of choices in a series of dialog boxes. | Right-click Menu| A right-click menu is a context-sensitive menu for an object. | Right-drag| Right-dragging is the process of pressing and holding the right mouse button while moving the mouse. | Row Selector| The row selector is the small box to the left of each field name in the upper half of the Table Design view window. Rows| Rows are the horizontal divisions of a table. Each row contains a separate record. | Rulers| In Form or Report Design View, horizontal and vertical rulers located along the top and left side of the screen indicate your current position within the document. They can assist you in determining the size of a control or a section. They can be turned off or on from the View menu. | Run| When you run a query, you tell it to find and list the designated records. | Sample Tables| The Table Wizard provides numerous sample tables-both business-related and personal-from which to choose.
Select the type of table that most closely fits your application. Your selection of sample fields will be based on the sample table you select. | Save As/Export Option| The Save As/Export option located on the File menu lets you save the selected object under a different name. | Screen Element| A screen element is an object on the screen, such as a button or a ruler. | Search Subfolders| Use the Search Subfolders option in the Advanced Find dialog box to extend your search through the current folder and all of its subfolders. @49| Section| A section is a portion of a form.
A form contains at least one section, but can contain others. The most common sections used on forms are the heading and detail sections. | Select| You select, or highlight, an object by clicking it with the mouse. In order to work with an object, you must first select it. | Select Query| A select query retrieves a set of records based on the fields and criteria designated in the design grid. @61| Selecting| Selecting is highlighting an object or data in order to perform a command or operation. | Selection Bar| The selection bar is an unmarked area in the left margin of a document that allows for easy data selection. Selection Query| A selection query searches for and creates a Recordset of all records that meet designated criteria. | Shadowed Button| Use the Shadowed Button to apply a border around the control and a shadow box behind it. | Shadowing Text| When you shadow text, you add a drop-shadow behind it. You can use shadowing for emphasis. | SHIFT| The [SHIFT] key on the keyboard is used in conjunction with other keys and mouse actions to capitalize letters and perform various commands and functions. | SHIFT+Click| [SHIFT+Click] is the process of holding down the [SHIFT] key while pressing the left mouse button. SHIFT+TAB| Use [SHIFT+TAB] to move one column to the left. | Shortcut| A shortcut points to an application or document in another location and is represented by an icon with an arrow at the bottom. | Shortcut Menu| A shortcut menu shows a list of context-sensitive options. (See Right-click Menu. )| Show Table Button| Use the Show Table button to open a dialog box that lets you add a table to the query or the Relationships window| Show Table Dialog Box| The Show Table dialog box lets you add tables to your query. | Single-column Report| A single-column report prints all the data in one column.
The quickest way to produce one that allows you to choose your fields is to use Report Wizard, then select Vertical under layout options. | Size Mode| Size Mode specifies how a graphic will be sized. | Sizing Handles| Sizing handles are the small black boxes on the corners, sides, tops, and bottoms of selected text boxes or controls. You can resize the selected object by clicking-and-dragging one of these handles. | Sort| When you sort data in a report, you tell Access that you want the data arranged in a certain order. For example, you might want to sort order records by date ordered.
You also can sort items within a group. | Sort Row| Use the Sort row to designate how the records will be sorted. The sort options available are ascending, descending, or not sorted. If you wish to sort records by the Cost field, then you would designate this in the Sort cell of the Cost column. | Special Effects| Access lets you change the appearence of a selected control by applying one of the following special effects: Flat, Raised, Sunken, Etched, Shadowed, Chisled. | Specific Record Box| The Specific Record box tells you the number of the current record. Status Bar| The status bar is a horizontal line of information located at the bottom of the Access window. It may provide instructions or descriptions as you work in Access. | Status Box| The status box is an informational panel on one end of the Taskbar that provides information about the system. | Style| The style is the appearance of the report, including font styles, borders, and colors. Access has a number of preformatted styles from which to choose. | Subfolders| Subfolders are folders within folders. | Subform| A subform is a form within a main form and can be displayed as a datasheet or as a single or continuous form. Summary Report| A summary report takes all of the records in a table or query and, instead of listing each record separately, it summarizes or condenses them. | Switchboard| A switchboard is a form that allows you to open other reports or forms or to perform other actions. It is particularly useful when creating a database that will be used by those who are not proficient in Access. | Tabbed Form| A tabbed form contains more than one page for each record. | Table| A table is a feature, comprised of parallel columns and rows, which is used to store, organize, and view data on a particular topic.
A single database may contain numerous tables containing information about related topics, such as customer addresses, product prices, and order information. | Table Design View Window| The Table Design view window is divided into two halves. The top half allows you to select or add fields, while the bottom half shows the properties of the selected field. | Table View Button| Use the Table View button to switch between the Design and Datasheet views of your table. | Table Views| There are two places to work with tables in Access: Design view and Datasheet view. Table Wizard| The Table Wizard provides step-by-step help in creating a table, selecting the fields, designating a primary key, and naming the table. | Tabs| Tabs are the titles of the cards found in some dialog boxes. Clicking one brings that card to the front. | Text Box Button| Use the Text Box button to create a text box. @75| Text Box Mouse Pointer| The mouse pointer changes to a text box pointer when you can insert a text box in a form or report. | Text Boxes| A text box is an area on a form or report where data fields can be shown or changed. Tick Mark Labels| Tick mark labels are the names that are applied to each section designated by tick marks. | Tick Marks| Tick marks are small marks that divide the sections of data along the axes of a bar chart. | Title Bar| The title bar is the area at the top of a window that contains the name of the application or open file. | Tool| A tool is a shortcut button, usually shown on a bar near the top of a window, that provides quick access to a commonly used command. | Toolbar| A toolbar is a group of tools of usually related functions. | Toolbox Button| Use the Toolbox button to toggle between opening and closing the toolbox. ToolTip| A ToolTip is a descriptive label that appears when the mouse pointer is held over a tool. | Truncated| Truncated text is the shortening or abbreviation of text due to limited display space. | Unbound Control| An unbound control in a form or report is not linked to a table or query and is usually a label, line, or graphic. | Ungrouping Objects| Ungrouping objects allows you to work with each part of a grouped object individually. | Unit Of Measure| The Unit of Measure options for labels are as follows: English, which lists the available label sizes in inches.
Metric, which lists the available label sizes in millimeters. | Up One Level Button| Use the Up One Level button to access the next higher-level folder on the computer. | Update Queries| An update query makes a change to designated records. | Wizards| Wizards guide you through difficult tasks using step-by-step dialog boxes. | WYSIWYG| WYSIWYG is an acronym for What You See Is What You Get, meaning that what you see on the screen should be what prints on the page. | †WIZARDs®† “Time is gold. ” As a leader, it is really hard to let your member decide whether it is final or not.
This is just my observation about our cooperation to fulfill our final documentation. Position: leader Name: Joel Gaano Balderama Address: San Agustin, Irosin, Sorsogon Civil Status: Single Course: Bachelor of Science in Computer Science “Being responsible is and honor we can give and an honor we can get. ” As a member of a team, we shall always be approachable and available so that we can fulfill our duties. Position: Assistant/ Documentator/Program designer Name: Anne Christine Tenes Grajo Address: Cogon, Irosin, Sorsogon Course: Bachelor of Science in Information Technology E-mail Address: [email protected] com It is really hard to make a thesis…but with the aid of cooperation of the co-members it makes our works lighter than it seems. ” Position: Assistant/ Programmer Name: Riza Monte Garcia Address: Burabod, Bagsangan, Irosin, Sorsogon Course: Bachelor of Science in Computer Science E-mail Address: [email protected] com “As a member I can see that each and everyone is willing to learn something new about all techniques involve in realization of our thesis… And I can see that it is really effective…” Position: Member/ Financier Name: Rico Fortes Gile Address: Patag, Irosin, Sorsogon Course: Bachelor of Science in Computer Science
E-mail Address: [email protected] com “All the hardworks has it fruitful rewards… this is the presumption I am having as we do our thesis documentation… All the efforts we have made is simply a ‘gathered-fruit’ though our own time of preparations. ” Position: Member/ Financier Name: Arlyn Loberia Nanoz Address: Omagom, Gulang-gulang, Irosin, Sorsogon Course: Bachelor of Science in Computer Science E-mail Address: [email protected] com. ph “Time is very important in preparing this kind of documentation… We encounter repetition of printing and then in editing of redundancies of our thesis.
As a member I am very much concern about my co-members participation. ” Position: Member/ Financier Name: Vincent Paul Herrera Fundano Address: San Pedro, Irosin, Sorsogon Course: Bachelor of Science in Information Technology E-mail Address: [email protected] com “In the preparation of our thesis I was amazed by my co-members for their patience in finalizing this kind of documentation… They had the perseverance to finish our task… And by this I was influenced to cooperate with them. At least I do contribute my time and effort. ” Position: Secretary/ Financier Name: Mary Jane Lacsa Alunan Address: Bacolod, Irosin, Sorsogon
Course: Bachelor of Science in Computer Science E-mail Address: [email protected]