The general areas which concern code of conduct include: 1 . Points of Courtesy to be Observed 2. Activity Guidelines and 3. Mode of Appearance In terms of courtesy, teachers should I. Be courteous, honest and upright in speech and action towards all people both in and out of School; ii. Be considerate and tolerant; iii. Do their best in work and to be fair ‘v. Take pride in the good name and reputation of the School and to act accordingly, whether in School outside. It should be noted that what applies to teachers in terms of school code of conduct also applies to the students.
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For example major offenses that are not tolerated in the school for both students and teachers are as follows 1 . Smoking in the classroom is forbidden. . The consumption of alcohol as well as the use of illegal substances is against the law. 3. Stealing is illegal and punishable by the law. 4. Bullying, I. E. Intentionally being unkind, disrespectful and or inconsiderate towards school authority. 5. Cheating and plagiarism are serious offenses and are forbidden, whether in homework, tests or exams. 6. Weapons and dangerous objects may not be brought onto the School premises.
When the code of conduct is well defined, managing class is no longer a challenging task. B. Classroom Management One of the most serious challenges for newly employed teachers, student teachers, ND even some experienced teachers is how to manage their classroom. No teachers will enjoy the Job of teaching if he is unable to control his classroom. It is effective classroom management that makes teaching a fun. The secret behind many teachers enthusiasm about teaching is their ability to control and manage their classroom.
That is why some teachers are always happy and eager to meet their students and vice versa, while other teachers are frustrated and frustrate their students. In a nutshell, no teacher is expected to succeed in his primary mission of imparting knowledge, unless he is able to manage his class well. Classroom management is to the teacher what housekeeping is to the housewife. In simple term, classroom management involves the careful harmonistic of those elements which help to take care of teaching-learning situations. It is very important and in fact, holds the Key to ten success AT ten teaching-learning process.
I t Tessellates stressful completion of teaching learning tasks. In classroom management, teachers try to utilize everything within their reach to promote effective learning. According to Nadia (2000) classroom management involves the organization of certain non-academic tasks which are essential for effective teaching. It consists of checking class attendance, keeping record of class progress, controlling student’s conduct and activities, manipulating instructional materials, the improvement of classroom working conditions and elimination of any distractions.
Otto (1997) views classroom management as an organizational function in which tasks are performed in a variety of settings, resulting to the inculcation of certain values like human respect, personal integrity, self-direction and group cohesion. From the above discussion, we can synthesize some elements which are vital in managing classroom. These elements include: 1. Physical conditions 2. Classroom arrangement 3. Record keeping Each of these elements will be briefly discussed. 1. Physical Conditions The physical condition of any classroom is determined by the general condition of the school.
That is why to site a school becomes a serious challenge for educators. Classrooms should become a serious challenge for educators. Classroom should be away from public centers like market places, cinemas, stadiums, industries, etc. Factors to be considered in determining the physical condition of a classroom include: a. Ventilation: Ventilation meaner the effective circulation of natural air. The classroom should have wide doors and shutters. These can facilitate easy movement of the air in an out of the classroom during power failure or in case of where there is no power supply.
By implication, the temperature and humidity should be properly regulated. B. Illumination: A classroom should be properly brightened with electric bulbs. Where this is not available, provision should be made to allow penetration of sunlight not the rays. C. Equipment: All types of standard equipment necessary in the classroom should be immediately available and in working order. D. General Appearance: The roofing of the classroom should not be too high or immediately above the students heads. The class should be neat, tastefully decorated and painted with nice color paints. . Classroom Arrangement Classroom arrangement is divided into two: a. Seating arrangement: In seating arrangement, the teacher should help students to sit in an orderly manner taking into consideration the following: In this respect, we will consider the following: I. Students’ height: The small children should be placed in front of the taller ones. It. Students’ impairment: Students with sight and hearing robber should be given seat that helps their situation. Iii. Students’ ‘Q: The dull students should seat with brilliant ones. ‘v.
Students’ congestion: Students should not be too many per seat According to Nigeria Educational Research Council (1985) student should be given seats, desks and tables suited to their size and type of activity. The seats should be easily movable, and student with vision or hearing Impairment snouts De glen special attention. Smaller CNN learn snouts De seated front of the tall ones. B. Activity arrangement This refers to both teacher and students activities. It implies how every class activity would be arranged in a coordinated manner.
Distribution of books, papers and other materials in the class should have a regular method as well as their collection. Classroom tools should be kept in order, chalk/maker and dusters should be handy at all times and the board neatly maintained. With regard to the daily routines, the timetable should be so drawn that the time when the subject occur is related to fatigue curves. Activity arrangement can therefore include the following: I. Collection of books and papers it. Distribution of books and papers iii. Maintenance of class tools and materials ‘v.
Establishing and maintaining daily routines Record keeping is one of the important administrative functions of any administrator, teacher inclusive. Teachers in those days tend to ignore record keeping. But because of how records go a long way saving the neck of many teachers, teachers now value recording and keeping the records of their day to day activities in the classroom. Some of these important records to be kept include: I. Office correspondence / mails it. Reports iii. Attendance ‘v. Results (Assignments, tests, examinations) v. Students’ and parent’s’ complains v’.
Punishment records Classroom control may be used interchangeably with class management. That is why mom writers have prepared to use them Jointly as classroom management and control instead of using them separately. In this course, we will rather use the terms separately instead of Joining them. While classroom management refers to organizational function of provisions and procedures necessary for creating conducive learning environment, classroom control refers to teacher’s ability to be completely in charge of the classroom learning situation. Classroom control meaner teacher’s ability to ensure law and order in the classroom.
It is the capability of teacher to decide the overall nature of the classroom atmosphere. According to Nadia (2000), classroom control connotes exercising authority or power by the teacher over the class so that the students are made to comply with rules and regulations governing the classroom. There are number of things to control in a classroom. These include: 1. Noise control 4. Dirt control and Classroom control was sometimes back used to suggest autocratic domination of the class by teacher with little or no consideration to the needs and concerns of the us .NET. O A good classroom control according to Fontana (1’385) raters to ten process of running an organized and effective classroom, a classroom in which the abilities of individual students are given due opportunities for development, in which teachers can fulfill their proper function as facilitators of learning and in which students can acquire sensibly and enjoyably the techniques for monitoring and guiding their behaviors. The importance of classroom control therefore includes: 1. Building of attentive and relaxed learning environment. 2.
Helping to bring the efforts of teacher and students together for effective learning 3. Creating mutual and symbiotic relationship between teacher and his students. 4. Help students in their efforts to be self-controlled and self-discipline. . It is the basis for learning to respect public laws and orders. 6. It helps saves time and energy. Discipline is very important to the classroom management and control. Discipline does not necessarily refer to issuing orders and expecting people to obey them or punishing people when they refuse to obey them like what obtains in the military.
Discipline in this context refers to how people control and respect themselves as a result of training or instructions given to them. Discipline according to Nigeria Educational Research Council (1985) is more than the power exercised by the teacher ever the students. It is more than the mere maintenance of order or the right method of dealing with offenses in school. It is the training which guided students to live a life of self-restraint, orderliness, good conduct, cooperation and the habit of getting the best out of themselves.
According to Aka (1981), discipline in modern classroom management is the provision of a suitable environment for students to develop self- control, orderliness, good conduct, cooperation and habit of getting the best out of themselves during and after school life. F. Factors which contribute to keeping good spelling in class The factors which contribute to maintaining good discipline in classroom includes the following: 1 . The personality of the teacher 2. Good physical environment 3. Organization 4. Use of authority 1 . The teacher’s personality: The personal character of a teacher.
A teacher must have absolute control of himself if he is to secure respect and willing obedience from his students. 2. Physical surroundings: All forms of physical discomfort tend to distract the attention of students. When class is poorly lighted, ventilated and furnished, it will be difficult to maintain order. 3. Organization: Classroom activities eke the distribution and collection of exercise books or papers, the opening and shutting of windows, cleaning board, e. T. C. , must be well organized if order is to be maintained. 4. Use of authority: Authority of a teacher is the foundation of good discipline in the classroom.
The way teacher exercises his authority determines to a very great extent the manner in which class rules and regulations are obeyed and laws and orders maintained. For a teacher to command the respect of his students, his authorities should have the following qualities: a. Consistency b. Firmness c. Fairness a. Adjectively e. Clarity G. Indiscipline in the Classroom Indiscipline cannot occur in the classroom unless the teacher loses control of his students and was unable to utilize or manage available instructional facilities within his reach. Indiscipline refers to any form of undesirable behavior manifested by students in the classroom.
Students exhibiting any behavior that is contrary to the training given to him is said to be indiscipline or lacking in discipline. Indiscipline occurs when classroom management fails and teacher loses ultimate control of his students and learning situation. Some common acts of indiscipline in the classroom include: 1. Truancy 2. Late coming 3. Rudeness 4. Stealing 5. Bullying 6. Noise making 7. Hyperactivity 8. Lying 9. Deviant sexual behavior 10. Drug abuse 11. Cultism 12. Nudity e. T. C There are many factors contributing to indiscipline in the classroom. Some of these factors include: 1 .
School management factors: The type of management system in the school can cause indiscipline in the classroom. This is most especially where there is: a. Lack of facilities and equipment b. Lack of motivated teacher c. Restricted powers of teachers d. Admitting unqualified students e. Lack of religious instruction f. Poor communication g. Improper way of using authority . The teacher’s factors: The teacher can be responsible of lack of indiscipline in the classroom in the following ways: a. When teachers themselves are indiscipline b. When teachers are not devoted to duty c.
When teachers are incompetent d. Undue familiarity of some teachers with the students 3. The student’s factors: Some form of indiscipline in the classroom can be as a result of the following: a. Poor attitude to learning b. Poor home training c. Abuse of seniority among students d. Drug abuse e. Unrealistic student’s expectations. 4. Societal / parental factors: Indiscipline in the classroom can be as a result of arenas or collects manner AT annealing Issues. I nose can Include ten Toweling: a. Apathy: Some people are parent’s don’t care about education b. Materialism c.
Corruption d. Failure of parent’s to provide for their children necessary school requirement e. Interference of influential parent’s with school administrator. F. Undue publicity of sensation news The above factors are explained by Nadia (2000) to compose of home, the pupils negative self concept, inappropriate curriculum, low recognition of religious instruction, administrative style, teacher’s personality and poor method of teaching. (Note: Read this on your own) l. Reward and Punishment Classroom is a social environment where different forms of social interactions occur.
In order to maintain social order, students should work under laws or rules and regulations. In the classroom, teachers use different method to maintain laws and order. Such methods include rewards and punishment. 1 . Rewards: Reward simply meaner introducing anything pleasant to someone who does something good. Reward is used to induce goodness. Students behave in certain ways because they are expecting something good in return. Reward especially material is considered very dangerous and should be handled by teachers with care. The factors which should be considered when administering reward include. . Reward should not be too rampant b. Reward should be objective and on merit c. Reward should be made on neutral ground d. Reward should aim at promoting positive behavior e. Reward should not be in money terms 2. Punishment: Punishment which mostly referred to as corporal punishment has been considered by psychologists and other educationist as punitive measures of controlling indiscipline. The teacher should not over-react to every acts of indiscipline, so that he can avoid frequent use of punishment. Teachers should use punishment as a last resort.
In the use of punishment, the following conditions should hold. A. Build positive relationships with your students b. Punish the student before they forget their offenses c. Punishment should be moderate d. Punishment should not be administered in anger e. Be consistent, fair and in punishing f. Tell students what offense is being punished g. Make acceptable alternatives clear: you should not punish a child until he clearly understands the offense he has committed. H. Change punishment occasionally. 3. Example of punishments Example of the type of punishment which could be administered in the classroom includes