Chemistry for Human Life Promises and Concerns
Elements in the Human Body Your body is made up of chemical compounds, which are combinations of elements. While you probably know your body is mostly water, which is hydrogen and oxygen, can you name the other elements that make you… you? Question: What Are the Elements in the Human Body? Answer: Most of the human body is made up of water, H2O, with cells consisting of 65-90% water by weight. Therefore, it isn’t surprising that most of a human body’s mass is oxygen. Carbon, the basic unit for organic molecules, comes in second. 9% of the mass of the human body is made up of just six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. 1. Oxygen (65%) 2. Carbon (18%) 3. Hydrogen (10%) 4. Nitrogen (3%) 5. Calcium (1. 5%) 6. Phosphorus (1. 0%) 7. Potassium (0. 35%) 8. Sulfur (0. 25%) 9. Sodium (0. 15%) 10. Magnesium (0. 05%) 11. Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine, Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0. 70%) 12. Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead, Vanadium, Arsenic, Bromine (trace amounts) Most of the human body consists of water, which is made from hydrogen and oxygen. The most abundant element in the body is oxygen.
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Steve Allen, Getty Images This is the elemental chemical composition of the average adult human body. Water is the most abundant chemical compound in living human cells, accounting for 65-90% of each cell. Each water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom, but the mass of each oxygen atom is much higher than the combined mass of the hydrogen. All organic compounds contain carbon, which is why carbon is the second most abundant element in the body. Six elements account for 99% of the mass of the human body: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.
Although aluminum and silicon are abundant in the earth’s crust, they are found in trace amounts in the human body. Reference: Chang, Raymond (2007). Chemistry, Ninth Edition. McGraw-Hill. pp. 52. Elements in the Human Body Element| Percent by Mass| Oxygen | 65| Carbon| 18| Hydrogen | 10| Nitrogen | 3| Calcium | 1. 5| Phosphorus | 1. 2| Potassium | 0. 2| Sulfur| 0. 2| Chlorine | 0. 2| Sodium| 0. 1| Magnesium | 0. 05| Iron, Cobalt, Copper, Zinc, Iodine | ;0. 05 each| Selenium, Fluorine | | Chemistry of Love The emotions that you feel are a result of chemical messengers, primarily neurotransmitters.
Love, jealousy, envy, infatuation and infidelity all share a basis in chemistry. Question: Is There Really a Chemistry of Love? Answer: I don’t think there are any magic love potions that you can use to make someone fall in love, but chemistry does play an important role in how a relationship progresses. First, there’s attraction. Nonverbal communication plays a big part in initial attraction and some of this communication may involve pheromones, a form of chemical communication. Did you know that raw lust is characterized by high levels of testosterone?
The sweaty palms and pounding heart of infatuation are caused by higher than normal levels of norepinepherine. Meanwhile, the ‘high’ of being in love is due to a rush of phenylethylamine and dopamine. Why Onions Make You Cry They sit there, so harmless-looking on the kitchen counter. Yet as soon as you cut an onion, the tears begin to fall. What is it in onions that makes them burn your eyes? Pest control It’s easy to make your own natural mosquito repellent. You can control exactly what goes into the product so you won’t need to worry about any unwanted chemicals.
Natural Mosquito Repellent Safety There are a couple of different formulations you can make for your natural mosquito repellent. In general, what you are doing is diluting an essential oil that the mosquitoes find distasteful or which confuses them so they can’t find you to bite you. The oils don’t mix with water, so you’ll need to add them to other oils or to alcohol. It’s important to use an oil or alcohol that is safe for your skin. Also, don’t go overboard with the essential oils. The oils are potent and could cause skin irritation or another reaction if you use too much.
If you are pregnant or nursing, do not use any mosquito repellent, natural or otherwise, until after you’ve gotten it cleared by your physician. Introduction – History of MRI Water constitutes about two thirds of the human body weight, and this high water content explains why magnetic resonance imaging has become widely applicable to medicine. There are differences in water content among tissues and organs. In many diseases the pathological process results in changes of the water content, and this is reflected in the MR image.
Water is a molecule composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are able to act as microscopic compass needles. When the body is exposed to a strong magnetic field, the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are directed into order – stand “at attention”. When submitted to pulses of radio waves, the energy content of the nuclei changes. After the pulse, a resonance wave is emitted when the nuclei return to their previous state. The small differences in the oscillations of the nuclei are detected. By advanced computer processing, it is possible to build up a hree-dimensional image that reflects the chemical structure of the tissue, including differences in the water content and in movements of the water molecules. This results in a very detailed image of tissues and organs in the investigated area of the body. In this manner, pathological changes can be documented. MRI Scanner Inventor Raymond Damadian “2011 was officially designated the “International Year of Chemistry” by the United Nations to commemorate the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to Mankind. I thought i would present my 1 Minute Take on the topic “Chemistry for Human Welfare. “It is impossible to deny that Chemistry has played a major part in determining the nature of the modern world. ” – Linus Pauling, Double Nobel Laureate. Chemistry is the study of Matter itself. The strides taken by Humans in the two millennia have a close connection with every science, Chemistry included. Before coming to the pros and cons of Chemistry and its usefulness for Modern Humanity, I would like to first talk on the evolution of Chemistry throughout the ages. The first Human contact with Chemistry came by accident. When man struck two stones together, it produced mysterious sparks.
These sparks could be transferred to wood to create a wondrous flame. The earliest chemical reaction was Fire – a mystical force to the prehistoric man. The second thing that inspired man to inquire about the nature of matter was nature itself. How can Water be both a gas and a liquid? How do different flowers have different colours? Why do things give off a smell? The stage for modern chemistry was set, however, surprisingly, by Alchemy. The search for the “Elixir” of life – The Philosopher’s Stone involved experiments and maintaining records – a central part of Chemistry today!
After this, it was a matter of centuries before chemical concepts were explained, the Atomic theory was proven and the known elements were established, all by scientific method. It was then that a vast world of practical applications of chemistry was envisioned. New fibres, medicines, the X-Ray Machine, new methods for the mining industry, improved fertilizers for the agro industry, Electricity, computers and Nuclear Power. Whatever are the promises from Chemistry, it is VERY evident that the list of benefits from the field of Chemistry are growing exponentially everyday.
In his famous 1960 lecture, “There’s Plenty of Room At the Bottom”, Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman visioned a future of Atomic machines and Nanotechnology. His visions have today transpired into many practical applications, mostly benefiting the medicine industry. There are N number of fields where chemistry is being used. Some of them are: Medicine, Biology, Rocketry, Ballooning, in the Kitchen, Geology, Astrophysics, Computer Science, Nuclear Power, Nanotechnology, Agriculture, Manufacturing Industry, Television and Media and much much more.
The Periodic Table, labelled as “The Single Most beautiful Chart in the History of Humanity” helps as a starting point for all of chemistry. Having seen the promises, the very fact that every good thing has a bad side to it gives rise to the question, “What are the Concerns? ” In fact, there ARE concerns. The biggest concern is a person using chemistry for negative means. Basically, the amount of energy is constituent atoms, which can help build things, help destroy things faster. I will outline 3 principal concerns below: The first one is the obvious one – Nuclear Power.
There are two basic nuclear reactions: Fission and Fusion, involving breaking up or fusing of atomic nuclei. When nuclei fuse or break apart, they turn into other elements, giving out Energy. This can be related to Einstein’s famous equation where the “Mass” from the nuclei is converted into pure “Energy. ” This principle can be used to power a generator to produce, in a sense, a LOT of electricity. But a fateful day in Japan, 1945 reminds us the vicious power of Nuclear Fission, where the Atomic Bomb, caused devastation, and still affects the area today.
Also, incidents at Chernobyl and more recently, the Fukushima nuclear meltdown tell us that if not controlled, the vicious energy can destroy the entire planet. My own take on the Nuclear theme is – Right now, we are at the brink of mastering Fusion Power – although complete mastery is still decades away. After Nuclear Fission is mastered, we may ‘export’ the Sun to Earth and start a Nuclear Fusion reactor. Nuclear Fusion is far better than Fission, and also does not produce waste by-products. So, until we master Nuclear Fusion, this is an intermediate step.
The second one is – Biological Terror Attacks. Although the name tells us its got something to do with Biology and Diseases, but advances in chemistry can mean terrorists deliberately spreading toxins, harmful gases, viruses and likewise among the masses. The 2001 US Anthrax attacks, where letters were laced with infectious material, are a prime example. The third is the hot issue – found everywhere in science – Global Warming. The CFCs, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide were all, in the respective eras, were found as solutions to certain problems.
The Greenhouse Effect, a beneficial natural cycle, due to over’grazing’ of industries and careless waste disposal techniques, is turning the planet into a death chamber. The Ozone ‘Hole’ above Antarctica is the cause of ice melting in polar regions, and due to the gaping hole, harmful radiations from the Sun are permeating Earth’s atmosphere. One day, our planet may look like distant Mars. The solution for this, however, may lie, ironically, in Chemistry. Better techniques to flush out the CO2 may be developed, and the new field of ‘Bioplastics’ may yield a biodegradable plastic.
All in All, the Pros of Chemistry far outweigh the cons. The only thing that researchers have to care of is, misusing chemical power. I know, this post was more of an essay, than a one-minute take, but I just got crazy and wrote everything that came to my mind down. If you find any mistakes, do comment below. Also, if you have any questions, please comment below, I’ll try my best answering them :). Thanks. More at: http://atharvjoshi. blogspot. com/2011/07/chemistry-for-human-welfare-promises. html#ixzz1SkI3WhtH Atharv Joshi