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Apple History and Development

1-INTRODUCTION:- (APPLE MACINTOSH) * APPLE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT:- Founded in 1976 in a garage in Santa Clara, California, Apple is the brainchild of Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, two college dropouts who sought to provide a user-friendly computer to a new and distinct market of small computer users. Between 1978 and 1980, sales increased from $7. 8 million to $117 million, and in 1980 the company underwent its initial public stock offering. In 1983, Steve Wozinak left Apple. That same year Steve Jobs hired away John Sculley from Pepsi to be the company’s president.

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After experiencing several product failures, Apple unveiled the Macintosh computer in 1984 to overwhelming success, setting the stage for Apple’s rise and its recognition as a household name. By 1985, relations between Sculley and Jobs became contentious. Finally, the board of directors sided with Sculley, and Steve Jobs was forced from the company he helped found. Additionally, while CEO of Apple, John Sculley ignored Microsoft founder Bill Gates’s appeal for Apple to license the Macintosh operating system to Microsoft. Gates had hoped to make the Macintosh platform an industry standard.

However, with Sculley refusing to license the operating system, Gates purchased and developed the DOS operating system, which has become the international operating standard for more than 90 percent of all personal computers in the world. By the late 1980s, competition from Microsoft’s Windows operating system and the abject failure of Apple’s Newton handheld computer caused the earnings of Apple to plunge, forcing a reduction in the Apple workforce and the resignation of John Sculley. In 1997, Gilbert Amelio, Apple’s current CEO, orchestrated the purchase of the company NextStep from Apple founder Steve Jobs.

The NeXT operating system was a vast improvement over the then outdated Macintosh operating system. At the time of the purchase, it was hoped that the NeXT operating system could be used to. *APPLE VISSION, MISSION STATEMENT, AND VALUES: Vision Statement: Apple ignited the personal computer revolution in the 1970s with the Apple II and reinvented the personal computer in the 19805 with the Macintosh. Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals, and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software, and Internet offerings.

Mission Statement Apple Computer is committed to protecting the environment, health and safety of our employees, customers and the global communities ‘where we operate. We recognize that by integrating sound environmental, health and safety management practices into all aspects of our business, we can offer technologically innovative products and services while conserving and enhancing resources for future generations. Apple strives for continuous improvement in OUf environmental, health and safety management systems and in the environmental quality of our products, processes and services.

Values Apple Values are the qualities, customs, standards, and principles that the company believes will help it and its employees succeed. They are the basis for what we do and how we do it. Taken together, they identify Apple as a unique company. * SIGNIFICANCE & IMPACT: Apple’s computers became known for their user friendly interface. While most other computer companies focused on selling to big businesses, Apple targeted home users, which led to a string of influential computers using a graphical interface.

The Apple brand has the biggest impact on the world’s consumers, while Microsoft and the United States nation brand are those considered most in need of a remake. 2-EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS: – * Pest Model: A variety of pests invade McIntosh apples trees, including spider mites and aphids that injure new growth and sometimes the fruit. Scale insects and coddling moths also cause problems with apple production.?? *COMPITITORS ANALYSIS: It cannot be denied that laptop market is globally a crowded competition in which there are a number of giant technology companies in the world. Apple obviously has to consider their firm competitors.

Thus, the next step of this research is competitor analysis, which will identify direct and indirect competitors for Apple’s Macbook. Moreover, this analysis will select two direct competitors, which are Dell and HP, to assess their strengths and weakness relative to the marketing activities of Apple. *MARKET SURVEY: Apple has been so successful in these last years thanks to his fresh, imaginative way to think and do its business: a winning combination of exceptional products, great style and design, great strategy, innovative marketing, sleek and enticing communications. *Elaboration On The Swot Analysis: -INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS: * Core Competencies: Apple’s core competency is innovative design and technology. That’s the spirit behind its famous “Think Different” ad campaign. Apple introduces products that truly wow the market. Think back to the Macintosh in 1984 — the first affordable computer with a graphical user interface (GUI). Today, the iPhone challenges the definition of a phone, by combining a portable digital media player, Internet client, GPS navigator, camera, and … um … oh yeah, a phone. Not only does Apple wow consumers, but it changes the way we think about consumer electronics. Analysis Of Organizational Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, And Threats: Strengths: •Product development. Doesn’t invent the market, but its products set high standards for the market. •Design and utility. Sleek, not clunky. For instance, the desktop computer is part of the screen, not a separate box with wires; the iPhone has very few buttons and feels nice in the hand. Products are easy to use, almost intuitive. •Marketing. Clever and takes advantages of people’s frustrations with other hardware. •Brand name. •CEO Steve Jobs. Visionary and charismatic. Weaknesses: Very proprietary and controlling. Won’t open the operating system to outsiders to develop hardware to work with the products, keeping hardware sales to itself. While this keeps design control inside and up to standards, it has hurt wide adaptation of its hardware, especially computers, where it has a relatively small market share. Apple has veto power over Apps sold. •CEO Steve Jobs. He has been described as a control freak and very demanding. When he dies, the company will take a severe blow. When his health was in the news, his secretiveness damaged the company’s reputation. Not shareholder-friendly. Has abused option granting in the past and refuses to pay a dividend despite a huge (and growing) cash level, no debt, and gobs of free cash flow. Opportunities: – Very loyal customer base which has expanded beyond the Mac-heads of the 1990s with the iPod and the iPhone. The iPad has had a very successful launch. This seems to be leading to more sales of computers. – Has a well-deserved reputation for high-quality products that work smoothly. New products are generally well-received and have a built-in purchasing base. Move into other computer or media product spaces that are not served well. Can continue to design the standard-setter for those spaces. – A new version of Apple TV could take advantage of today’s more highly developed Web. Threats: – Big ideas are easy to copy. Microsoft (Nasdaq: MSFT ) copied the graphical user interface, and even Linux has a version. The touchscreen interface is being used in other phones (e. g. Android). Apps are being developed for other smart phones and devices. – High-priced products. Apple priced itself out of the personal computer market, and that remains a problem.

Other smartphones that look and behave similarly to the iPhone are less expensive. Google (Nasdaq: GOOG ) is moving into Apple’s smartphone space by giving away the operating system, and it has announced that it will also be moving into the TV space. Both companies are well-funded, so any battle between the two could be long and ugly. * Elaboration On The Swot Elements: SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths: – CEO Steve Jobs. – Product development. Apple’s products establish high standards for the market. – Robust Research & Development Department. – Design and convenience. – Marketing. ITunes Music Store is an outstanding source of revenue, especially with the iPod and its availability to access Windows platform. – Apple Computers are expert in developing own software and hardware. – Apple Computers have respectable brand loyalty – Apple’s niche offers the company with certain cover from the direct price competition. – Low debt. The combination of all elements mention above makes Apple the successful firm that it is today. 4- CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS: – * Contributing Factors: Some contributing factors like labor and research and development cost probably lead to Apple surpassing Microsoft. Globalization Strategy, Expansion regional. TAIPEI, Taiwan – Taiwan‘s Hon Hai Technology Group, a main manufacturer of Apple Inc. ’s iPhones and iPads, says it is assessing an investment in Brazil, an increasingly important market for new electronic gadgets. In a late Wednesday statement Hon Hai, the parent company of Foxconn, says that “we follow a globalization strategy of going where the market is. ” Earlier in the day, Brazilian Science and Technology Minister Aloizio Mercadante said that Apple and Foxconn will start production of iPads in the South American country by the end of November.

Foxconn currently has large-scale Chinese assembly operations where it makes products for Apple and other global companies. *International Expansion: – Apple’s international expansion points towards a Spirent Iphone: Out of all the Apple hoopla on Monday (CP: With iCloud, Apple changes the definition of ‘cloud’) emerged an interesting statistic from AllThingsD: Apple added 14 new international carrier partners for the iPhone in just two months. Considering there are now 200 carriers selling the iPhone, that jump isn’t huge, but shows that Apple isn’t sitting back and enjoying the relationships it has.

It’s actively trying to get the iPhone in more hands. We like to think that Verizon Wireless was a special case for Apple. After all, it did design an iPhone specifically for the CDMA networks of the country’s largest operator. But Apple may not so much be making an exception for Verizon as it is launching the next phase of its international expansion. In the U. S. we tend to think that Apple picks its partners carefully, but Apple’s long exclusivity with AT&T owes far more to circumstance than strategy. In most markets, the iPhone sells with multiple operators—in the U. K. there are six.

Apple isn’t really that particular so long as the operator uses the iPhone’s spectrum bands and 3G technology and agrees to Apple’s conditions. * Corporate Strategy: – Apple success is a lesson in a corporate strategy: Apple Inc. is riding high. In the last quarter, it shipped almost 1. 8 million Macintosh computers, sold 9. 8 million iPod music players and its iPhone—a revolutionary new product that went on sale in June after an al- most hysterical media blitz—is expected to reach sales of more than 1 million within the next three months, according to a re- cent Apple press release.

Apple also claims that it has sold more than three billion songs—downloaded from its iTunes music software—and has five million songs, 550 television shows and 500 movie titles for purchase, more than those offered by Amazon. com and Target. “We are thrilled to report the highest June quarter revenue and profit in Apple’s history, along with the highest quarterly Mac sales ever,” said CEO Steve Jobs in a recent press release. Alongside the company’s re- surgence, Apple’s stock (NAS- DAQ: AAPL) has also enjoyed high returns. At the end of 2002, its stock hovered around $14 (? 6. 90) a share. It jumped to around $65 (? 2) a share by the end of 2004. At the end of 2006, Apple was trading at $85 (? 42) a share, eventually mov- ing up to more than $120 (? 59) by May of this year. *Business Strategy: – Apple business strategy: Business Strategy Objective: To develop a market demand for Apple products in developing countries to insure the longevity of the Apple brand. Overview Apple inc. is a Multinational Corporation operating in 97 countries worldwide. It offers an array of products from computers to televisions to software. Apple is revered as a leader in innovative products that are both user friendly and ascetically pleasing.

In the market of computers today, Mac and PC are more similar then anything in terms of hardware. The memory in a MacBook Pro is almost identical to a comparable PC laptop. So where is the line that draws users to PC or Mac? The obvious difference is the OS or Operating System. Most desktop PC’s run on Windows OS while Apple has its own Mac OS. Bearing this in mind we dug deeper into the subject. Due to the fact that Apple already has a broad span of users in all parts of the world, we wanted to find out why it is that consumers here in the us. Functional Strategy: – Company resources and functional strategy: Superior qualitySuperior efficiencyCompetitive advantage: Low cost DifferentiationSuperior innovationSuperior customer responsibilities * Organizational Structure, and Job Design: CEO Steave Jobs CFO Peter OppenheimerControle Betsy Rafael Director Andrea Jung COO Timothy CookGlobal Outsourcing Michalle Brown Director Albert Gore Legal Bruce SewellApple Online Store Jennifer Bailey Director William CambellHardware Robert Mansfield AppleCare Susan Gallagaher Director Arthur Levinson iOS Software

Scott ForstallEducation John Couch Operations Jeff WilliamsEMEAI Region Pascal Cagni Retail Ronald JohnsonConsumer & Pro Application Grey Gilley Software Engineering Bertrand SerletMac OS Engineering Craig Federight Product Marketing Philip SchillerInternet Services Eddu Cue Global Communication Katie CottoniPhone & iPod Marketing Greg Joswiak Communication, EMEA Alan Hely Communication, Asia Pacific Jill Tan Communication, Japan Takashi Takebayashi Communication, Latin America Christina Caballero Corporate Communication Steave Dowling * Organizational Control

Apple control its organization by maintaining its products and services with a very high quality of employees who supports apple’s company with their experience and knowledge in order to be listed as one of the best companies all over the world. * Organizational Culture: Organizational Culture At Apple Inc, In the year 1976, it was a dream for most people to buy a computer for their homes. Back then the computer community added up to a few brainy hobbyists. So when Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs sold a van and two programmable calculators for thirteen hundred dollars and started Apple Computers, Inc. in Jobs garage, the reach for success seemed far. But these two young business men, Wozniak 26 years old and Jobs 21 years old, had a vision. Computers aren’t for nerds anymore, they announced. Computers are going to be the bicycle of the mind. Low cost computers for everyone. From the first day on the founders of Apple kept their vision intact and they spoke it at every turn. They only hired people into the company that had the same visions as they did. *Leadership And Management: leadership and management styles of Apple Inc

Threats – competition is the biggest threat to Apple and as the industry attracts competition the probability of competitors entering the market is high. There is a high product substitution effect especially in the technology based industries as previously CDs, Vinyl , etc. Were more famous but now iPods and MP3 are used more and in the later years wireless technology could replace these . In a case won by Apple in 2005 Bloggers revealed that three employees of Apple themselves leaked some confidential information of the company Leadership is associated to organizational change management. Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibilities, Business Ethics. OVERVIEW – THE ROLE OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS: It is the paramount duty of the Board of Directors to oversee the CEO and other senior management in the competent and ethical operation of the Company on a day-to-day basis and to assure that the long-term interests of the shareholders are being served. To satisfy this duty, the directors will take a proactive, focused approach to their position, and set standards to ensure that the Company is committed to business success through maintenance f the highest standards of responsibility and ethics. The Company has a code of ethics, “Business Conduct: The Way We Do Business Worldwide,” that applies to all of the Company’s employees, including its principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer, and the Board. A copy of this code is available on the Company’s website at www. apple. com/investor. The Company intends to disclose any changes in or waivers from its code of ethics by posting such information on its website or by filing a Form 8-K. * Crisis Management: Crisis Management – learn from Apple

Apple did not handle the iPhone 4-antenna question perfectly, and it serves as a great case study on what works and what doesn’t. For several weeks, the problem vexed Apple. In the end, the deft handling of the issue at Friday’s press conference likely put the issue to rest, but the mis-steps along the way are also useful to note. Here are a few things I noticed. Initial Silence It’s not uncommon for companies to be quiet about an issue when it first appears, and with Apple this seems to be fixed in their culture. When a product problem comes to light, you really don’t know how big a problem you have.

Even if you are aware of the underlying issue, you already judged it to be minor, so some reassessment must happen. Still, a simple, clean communication is important. Customers need to know that you take all their questions and concerns seriously and are investigating the matter. Mistake #1: Apple didn’t say enough, from the beginning Apple should have assured customers early that while their tests show this is the best iPhone ever, they take ever customer’s questions and concerns seriously and are actively investigating this matter. Software Problem

On July 2nd, Apple released an open letter to customers, describing a software flaw in the way the number of bars are calculated. 5- Problems And Issues That Need to Be Addressed: Now that Apple has finally set a release date for the iPad, it’s time to prepare for its launch on April 3. Undoubtedly, some folks will be happy with what they find in the iPad. There are some issues with Apple’s iPad that the company has yet to address. But if Apple wants its tablet to be successful, it better fix them before the iPad hits store shelves next month.?? Let’s take a look at those issues.?? 1. Where’s the 3G iPad???

Apple announced that the WiFi-only iPad model will be available on April 3. We still have no idea when the 3G-capable iPad will be launched. Apple has only said that it will be made available in “late April. ” Numerous reports released prior to the announcement suggested that the 3G version will be delayed, so a later release date seems to make sense. But Apple should still provide an exact date to allay the fears of those who wonder if the 3G version will be ready for widespread use at the end of April. After all, Apple’s track record with first-generation products isn’t stellar.?? 2. The 3G pricing conundrum??

Whether or not customers really want to pay $30 for unlimited 3G data or $14. 99 for 250MB of monthly data is up for debate. Even AT CEO Randall Stephenson said earlier this week that he believes the WiFi-only model will sell better, since folks don’t want to pay for another subscription. I understand why Apple is offering a 3G model, but 3G pricing is an issue.?? 3. We need Flash?? What good is a tablet that can be used to surf the Web if Flash isn’t supported? Yes, Apple wants to protect us from all those Flash security issues, but in the process, it’s also limiting access to many major sites across the Web.

Apple should offer Flash support before the iPad hits store shelves.?? 4. Displaying iPhone apps?? Some customers might be disappointed when they start adding their favorite iPhone applications to the iPad, since many apps won’t fit the iPad’s screen. Apps need to be full-screen on the iPad. If they’re not, the experience of using the device will be diminished. That’s a result that Apple simply doesn’t need as it attempts to make its iPad a viable alternative to so many other tablets on the market. *Implications of The Problem: 1- Loosing some curtomers. – gaining less profit. 3- descreases the numbers of buyers ,,and .. etc 6- RECOMMENDATIONS – The Apple MAC should try to satisfy the customers with their high quality, and they should put in their new products the missing items that they have already missed in their old products. – They have to listen to the costumer’s complaiments, so that they can improve their selves quickly, and learn from their issues. Moreover, they can get the costumers’ satisfaction, and gaining more and more costumers, which enables apple to get more profit and revenue. 7- CONCLUSION

Apple Macintosh is one of the greatest and most successful company all over the world, and eventually we can purshase from them a lot of good and high quality products regarding to their good items and services. – In my opinion, Althoug Apple Macintosh has a lot of advantages in their products, they have some disadvantages such as: costumers only are stick to purshase from app store, and only specific programs that can be downloaded in the mac system. 8- REFERENCES e-mail address: [email protected] com websites: file:///Apple%20Inc. %20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia. ebarchive file:///Apple’s%20core%20competency%20is%20innovative%20design%20and%20technology%20%7C%20Apple%20%7C%20OpenSurge. webarchive file:///Apple:%20Strengths,%20Weaknesses,%20Opportunities,%20Threats%20(AAPL). webarchive file:///Competitor%20Analysis%20Of%20Apple%20-%20Research%20Papers%20-%20Manhhung. webarchive file:///What%20is%20the%20meaning%20of%20the%20Apple%20Inc%20logo%3F%20-%20Yahoo! %20Answers. webarchive file:///%7C%7C%20Apple%20Marketing%20Strategy%20%7C%7C%20iPhone%20and%20iPod%20%7C%7C%20Vertygo%20Team%20%7C%7C. webarchive file:///Users/macbook/Sites/10%20Issues%20Apple%20Needs%20to%20Address%20Befo

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