Andrea Mantegna (1431 – September 13, 1506) was a North Italian Renaissance painter, a student ofRoman archeology, and son in law of Jacopo Bellini. Like other artists of the time, Mantegna experimented with perspective, e. g. , by lowering the horizon in order to create a sense of greater monumentality. His flinty, metallic landscapes and somewhat stony figures give evidence of a fundamentally sculptural approach to painting. He also led a workshop that was the leading producer ofprints in Venice before 1500.
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Mantegna was born in Isola di Carturo, close to Padua in the Republic of Venice, second son of a carpenter, Biagio. At the age of eleven he became the apprentice of Francesco Squarcione, Paduanpainter. Squarcione, whose original vocation was tailoring, appears to have had a remarkable enthusiasm for ancient art, and a faculty for acting. Like his famous compatriot Petrarca, Squarcione was something of a fanatic for ancient Rome: he travelled in Italy, and perhaps Greece, amassing antique statues, reliefs, vases, etc. forming a collection of such works, then making drawings from them himself, and throwing open his stores for others to study. All the while, he continued undertaking works on commission for which his pupils no less than himself were made available (Mantegna,2011). As many as 137 painters and pictorial students passed through Squarcione’s school, which had been established towards 1440 and which became famous all over Italy. Padua was attractive for artists coming not only from Veneto but also from Tuscany, such as Paolo Uccello, Filippo Lippi and Donatello.
Mantegna’s early career was shaped indeed by impressions of Florentine works. At the time, Mantegna was said to be a favorite pupil; Squarcione taught him the Latin language, and instructed him to study fragments of Roman sculpture. The master also preferred forced perspective, the lingering results of which may account for some of Mantegna’s later innovations. However, at the age of seventeen, Mantegna separated himself from Squarcione. He later claimed that Squarcione had profited from his work without paying the rights (Roberts,2004) .
His first work, now lost, was an altarpiece for the church of Santa Sofia in 1448. The same year Mantegna was called, together with Nicolo Pizolo, to work with a large group of painters entrusted with the decoration of the Ovetari Chapel in the transept of the church of the Eremitani. It is probable, however, that before this time some of the pupils of Squarcione, including Mantegna, had already begun the series of frescoes in the chapel of S. Cristoforo, in the church of Sant’Agostino degli Eremitani, today considered his masterpiece.
After a series of coincidences, Mantegna finished most of the work alone, though Ansuino, who collaborated with Mantegna in the Ovetari Chapel, brought his style in the Forli School of painting. The now censorious Squarcione carped about the earlier works of this series, illustrating the life of St James; he said the figures were like men of stone, and had better have been colored stone-color at once (Levinson,1999). This series was almost entirely lost in the 1944 allied bombings of Padua. The most dramatic work of the fresco cycle was the work set in the worm’s-eye view perspective, St.
James Led to His Execution. For an example of Mantegna’s use of a lowered view point, see the image at right of Saints Peter and Paul; though much less dramatic in its perspective than the St. James picture, the San Zeno altarpiece was done shortly after the St. James cycle was finished, and uses many of the same techniques, including the classicizing architectural structure. The sketch of the St. Stephen fresco survived and is the earliest known preliminary sketch which still exists to compare to the corresponding fresco. Despite the authentic look of the monument, it is not a copy of any known Roman structure.
Mantegna also adopted the wet drapery patterns of the Romans, who derived the form from the Greek invention, for the clothing of his figures, although the tense figures and interactions are derived from Donatello. The drawing shows proof that nude figures were used in the conception of works during the Early Renaissance. In the preliminary sketch, the perspective is less developed and closer to a more average viewpoint however (Levinson,1999). Among the other early Mantegna frescoes are the two saints over the entrance porch of the church ofSant’Antonio in Padua, 1452, and an altarpiece of St.
Luke and other saints for the church of S. Giustina, now in the Brera Gallery in Milan . As the young artist progressed in his work, he came under the influence of Jacopo Bellini, father of the celebrated painters Giovanni and Gentile, and of a daughter Nicolosia. In 1453 Jacopo consented to a marriage between Nicolosia and Mantegna (Levinson,1999). Aesthetic Andrea seems to have been influenced by his old preceptor’s strictures, although his later subjects, for example, those from the legend of St. Christopher, combine his sculptural style with a greater sense of naturalism and vivacity.
Trained as he had been in the study of marbles and the severity of the antique, Mantegna openly avowed that he considered ancient art superior to nature as being more eclectic in form. As a result, the painter exercised precision in outline, privileging the figure. Overall, Mantegna’s work thus tended towards rigidity, demonstrating an austere wholeness rather than graceful sensitivity of expression. His draperies are tight and closely folded, being studied from models draped in paper and woven fabrics gummed in place.
His figures are slim, muscular and bony; the action impetuous but of arrested energy. Finally, tawny landscape, gritty with littering pebbles, marks the athletic hauteur of his style (Janson et al,2005). Mantegna never changed the manner which he had adopted in Padua, though his coloring—at first neutral and undecided—strengthened and matured. Throughout his works there is more balancing of color than fineness of tone. One of his great aims was optical illusion, carried out by a mastery of perspective which, though not always mathematically correct, attained an astonishing effect in those times.
Successful and admired though he was there, Mantegna left his native Padua at an early age, and never resettled there again; the hostility of Squarcione has been assigned as the cause. He spent the rest of his life in Verona, Mantua and Rome; it has not been confirmed that he also stayed in Venice and Florence (Roberts,2004). Work in Mantua The Marquis Ludovico II Gonzaga of Mantua had for some time been pressing Mantegna to enter his service; and the following year, 1460 Mantegna was appointed court artist.
He resided at first from time to time at Goito, but, from December 1466 onwards, he moved with his family to Mantua. His engagement was for a salary of 75 lire a month, a sum so large for that period as to mark conspicuously the high regard in which his art was held. He was in fact the first painter of any eminence ever domiciled in Mantua. His Mantuan masterpiece was painted in the apartment of the Castle of the city, today known as Camera degli Sposi (literally, “Wedding Chamber”): a series of full compositions in fresco including various ortraits of the Gonzaga family and some figures of genii (Roberts,2004). The Chamber’s decoration was finished presumably in 1474. The ten years that followed were not happy ones for Mantegna and Mantua: his character grew irritable, his son Bernardino died, as well as the marquis Ludovico, his wife Barbara and his successor Federico (who had declared Mantegna cavaliere, “knight”). Only with the election of Francesco II of Gonzaga did the artistic commissions in Mantua begin again.
He built a stately house in the area of the church of San Sebastiano, and adorned it with a multitude of paintings. The house can be still seen today, although the pictures have perished. In this period he began to collect some ancient Roman busts (which were donated to Lorenzo de Medici when the Florentine leader visited Mantua in 1483), n 1488 Mantegna was called by Pope Innocent VIII to paint frescos in a chapel Belvedere in the Vatican. This series of frescos, including a noted Baptism of Christ, was destroyed by Pius VI in 1780.
The pope treated Mantegna with less liberality than he had been used to at the Mantuan court; but all things considered their connection, which ceased in 1500, was not unsatisfactory to either party (Janson et al,2005). Mantegna also met the famous Turkish hostage Jem and studied with attention the ancient monuments, but his impression of the city was a disappointing one as a whole. Returned to Mantua in 1490, he embraced again his more literary and bitter vision of antiquity, and entered in strong connection with the new marquise, the cultured and intelligent Isabella d’Este.
In what was now his city he went on with the nine tempera pictures of the Triumphs of Caesar, which he had probably begun before his leaving for Rome, and which he finished around 1492. These superbly invented and designed compositions are gorgeous with the splendour of their subject-matter, and with the classical learning and enthusiasm of one of the master-spirits of the age. Considered Mantegna’s finest work, they were sold in 1628 along with the bulk of the Mantuan art treasures to King Charles I of England.
They are now in Hampton Court Palace, somewhat faded, but many repaintings have been removed in a recent restoration. His workshop produced a series of engravings after them, which largely account for their rapid fame throughout Europe (Grey,1992). Later years In spite of declining health, Mantegna continued to be active. Other works of this period include the Madonna of the Caves, the St. Sebastian and the famous Lamentation over the Dead Christ, probably painted for his personal funerary chapel.
Another work of Mantegna’s later years was the so-calledMadonna della Vittoria, now in the Louvre. It was painted in tempera about 1495, in commemoration of the Battle of Fornovo, whose disputable outcome Francesco Gonzaga was eager to show as an Italian League victory; the church which originally housed the picture was built from Mantegna’s own design. The Madonna is here depicted with various saints, the archangel Michael and St. Maurice holding her mantle, which is extended over the kneeling Francesco Gonzaga, amid a profusion of rich festooning and other accessory.
Though not in all respects of his highest order of execution, this counts among the most obviously beautiful and attractive of Mantegna’s works from which the qualities of beauty and attraction are often excluded, in the stringent pursuit of those other excellences more germane to his severe genius, tense energy passing into haggard passion (Janson et al,2005). After 1497 Mantegna was commissioned by Isabella d’Este to translate the mythological themes written by the court poet Paride Ceresara into paintings for her private apartment (studiolo) in the Palazzo Ducale.
These paintings were dispersed in the following years: one of them, the legend of the God Comus, was left unfinished by Mantegna and completed by his successor as court painter in Mantua,Lorenzo Costa (Grey,1992). After the death of his wife, Mantegna became at an advanced age the father of a natural son, Giovanni Andrea; and at the last, although he continued launching out into various expenses and schemes, he had serious tribulations, such as the banishment from Mantua of his son Francesco, who had incurred the marquis’ displeasure.
Perhaps the aged master and connoisseur regarded as barely less trying the hard necessity of parting with a beloved antique bust of Faustina. Very soon after this transaction he died in Mantua, on September 13, 1506. In 1516, a handsome monument was set up to him by his sons in the church of Sant’Andrea, where he had painted the altar-piece of the mortuary chapel. The dome is decorated by Correggio (Grey,1992). Like Pollajuolo, Andrea delighted in copper engraving, and, among other things, reproduced his Triumphs.
They were greatly valued, because better ones had not then been seen. Among his last works was a panel at S. Maria della Vittoria, a church built under his direction by the Marquis Francesco to celebrate his victory at the River Taro when he was general of the Venetians against the French. It is painted in tempera, and was placed at the high altar. Our Lady with the Child is erected upon a pedestal; beneath her are St. Michael the Archangel, St. Anne and Joach in presenting the marquis, who is drawn from life most naturally, while the Madonna stretches out her hand to him.
This world, which gives pleasure to everyone, so delighted the marquis that he rewarded the genius and the pains of Andrea most liberally, the painter retaining to the end his honourable rank of knight, his works being admired by princes everywhere. Lorenzo da Lendinara, a rival of Andrea, was considered an excellent painter at Padua, and did some things in clay in the church of S. Antonio, and others of no great value. He maintained a close friendship with Mario da Trevisi and Mario Zoppo of Bologna, because they had been fellow-pupils of Squarcione.
Marco did a loggia for the Minorites at Padua, which serves as their chapter-house, and a picture at Pesaro, which is now in the new church of S. Giovanni Evangelista. In one picture he drew the portrait of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, when he was captain of the Florentines. Another friend of Mantegna was Stefano, painter of Ferrara, whose works were few but meritorious. The ornamentation of the arch of S. Antonio at Padua is by him, as well as the Virgin Mary, called del Pilastro (Grey,1992). Assessments and Legacy Giorgio Vasari eulogizes Mantegna, although pointing out his litigious character.
He had been fond of his fellow-pupils at Padua: and for two of them, Dario da Trevigi and Marco Zoppo, he retained a steady friendship. Mantegna became very expensive in his habits, fell at times into difficulties, and had to urge his valid claims upon the marquis’ attention. In solid antique taste, Mantegna distanced all contemporary competition. Though substantially related to the 15th century, the influence of Mantegna on the style and tendency of his age was very marked over Italian art generally. Giovanni Bellini, in his earlier works, obviously followed the lead of his brother-in-law Andrea.
Albrecht Durer was influenced by his style during his two trips in Italy. Leonardo da Vinci took from Mantegna the use of decorations with festoons and fruit (Mantegna, 2011). Mantegna’s main legacy in considered the introduction of spatial illusionism, both in frescoes and insacra conversazione paintings: his tradition of ceiling decoration was followed for almost three centuries. Starting from the faint cupola of the Camera degli Sposi, Correggio brought on his master and collaborator’s research in perspective constructions, producing eventually a masterwork like the dome ofCathedral of Parma (Mantegna,2011).
Andrea was so gentle and amiable in all his acts that he will always be remembered, not only in his own country, but throughout the world. Thus he deserves the reference of Ariosto as much for his courteous manners as for the excellence of his‚painting. I refer to the passage at the beginning of Canto XXXIII. , where, in enumerating the most celebrated painters of the time, the poet says: Leonardo, Andrea Mantegna, Gian Bellino Andrea improved the foreshortening of figures as seen from below, and this was a difficult and fine invention.
He was also fond, as I have said, of copper engraving, a very remarkable process, by means of which the world has been able to see the Bacchanalia, the battle of the sea-monsters, the Deposition from the Cross, the Burial of Christ and the Resurrection, with Longinus and St. Andrew, all works of Mantegna, as well as the styles of all the artists who have ever lived (Mantegna ,2011). Work Cited 1. Art; London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1992) Grey, Charles Exhibition Catalog: Metropolitan Museum of Art; Royal Academy of Arts 2. “Andrea Mantegna”. Catholic Encyclopedia.
New York: Roberts, Jason Appleton Company. 1913. January 14,2004. 3. Early Italian Engravings from the National Gallery of Art; J. A. Levinson (ed); National Gallery of Art, 1973,LOC 7379624, March 18, 1999 4. Janson, H. W. , Janson, Anthony F. History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , Publishers. 6 edition. January 1, 2005. ISBN 0-13-182895-9 5. WWW. artchive. com/artchive/M/mantegna. html. 04-21-2011 Mississippi Valley State University Department of Fine Arts Andrea Mantegna Presented to: Mrs. Tieman Presented by: Bennie L. Terry Jr. April 21, 2011