Reason For Participating And Rewards Gained
8 Year Old Footballer Playing For His School Hoping To Gain A Place In His Local Town’s Team. A child is usually outgoing and confident as they have no extreme pressures to perform well. This young footballer has an extrovert personality type and works well in group situations as they are confident, loud and outgoing. Therefore they are suited well to playing football and can communicate easily with other team members. If he were a goalkeeper it would be more difficult to class his personality type, because although goalkeepers aren’t involved in the run of play as much they need to communicate the same if not more then outfield players. Most youngsters have a more extrinsic personality type as they don’t feel any pressure from others and don’t feel the need to excel in their sport they see it more as fun.
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At this age the youngster has both internal and external motivation. The internal motivation they maintain is to gain new skills and impress others his age in a not so competitive manner. Between the ages of 5-10 children develop very quickly and are constantly learning new skills. Consequently they have lots of inner drive. However the extrinsic motivation comes from his parents mainly his father who played himself and wants his son to follow in his footsteps and gain recognition in the sport. Plus there is the extrinsic motivation that if he performs well he could be scouted to play for the town’s team. At this age the child is also looking up to famous footballers from the premiership teams such as Wayne Rooney, Thierry Henry etc. They watch them play and often try to copy their skills and develop motivation to learn new things.
The young boy see’s participating as a way of socialising and having fun. Although he also hopes to go further in the sport. He is participating for both internal and external rewards. The intangible (internal) rewards which he gains are confidence, new friends, pride etc. On the other hand if he performs well in training and match situations then he is given the opportunity to try out for the town’s team. Plus in tournaments and at the end of the schools matches there are player of the match awards etc. Due to the rate at which youngsters learn, they are constantly achieving targets and goals and setting new ones which provide them with a high feeling or pride, self-esteem and self-realisation. It also boosts confidence and maintains the intrinsic motivation rather then it been replace with extrinsic motivation.
20 Year Old Male Professional Cyclist The cyclist has a more introvert personality type and tends to back away from experiences that require group work and social interaction. The male cyclist works better alone therefore cycling is perfect for them as you don’t have to take part in team cycling events unless you wish to. Although he is introvert and lack confidence in group situations, he does have lots of inner confidence that he doesn’t show. Otherwise, he wouldn’t have made it to the professional level.
For the cyclist there are factors from both the extrinsic and intrinsic sides of motivation. Although there is extrinsic pressure from his coach, there is little pressure from anyone else because it is an individual sport. However if they choose to participate in team races then there will be more extrinsic pressure to gain the best times and places to prevent letting the team down. The cyclist must maintain high levels of intrinsic motivation and set personal goals on top of the goals which the coach sets in order to maintain dedication and confidence in his sport of cycling, as he is rarely pushed to succeed by others.
Although he is a professional, cycling is not as widely recognised and shown as often in the media compared to football and other team games. Very few individual sports gain high recognition in the media which results in less tangible rewards. There are less tangible rewards, because due to lack of media coverage there are often less sponsors which means less money been put into the game for trophies or cash prices. Linking in with motivation, if the cyclist has little chance of gaining tangible rewards then he must have lots of intrinsic motivation to want to participate and compete for himself and to gain self-esteem, confidence and pride.
40 Year Old Overweight Female Gym User She has an introvert personality type which is why she chose to exercise alone. She is also shy and doesn’t work well in group situations and doesn’t socialise well. She likes calm surroundings. Her motivation is mainly intrinsic as she chose to join the gym and exercises alone there with the supervision of qualified instructors. She is not receiving any cash or trophies for progress at the gym, therefore it’s her own inner drive that pushes her to keep making progress and setting new goals. She doesn’t enjoy training and has done little exercise throughout her life but now she has no choice as her weight is damaging her health.
Her goal is to lose excess weight and every time she weighs herself and has lost a few pounds she gains confidence and believes she has the ability to take control of her health and it pushes her to keep attending the gym. There is a slight aspect of extrinsic motivation from the doctors as they advised her to join a gym although they aren’t actually there coaching her and pushing her further, she is doing that herself. She is able to take part in various types of gym session including cardiovascular endurance sessions, weight sessions and aerobic sessions. She plays her own choice of music at all these sessions which keeps her calm and works especially well with the aerobic sessions. The fact that the sessions are varied prevents her from getting bored and tired and keeps each session challenging yet interesting and fun.
She is hoping to meet new people at the gym in a less crowded surrounding to develop her social skills. She is also trying to develop her general fitness to prevent illness and disease as she gets older as she has been given advice by the doctor to exercise for her own health benefits